Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size


E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (December 2002) 31(2): 47-55



1 Institute of Bioscience 2 Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


Ganoderm isolates from infected oil palm and coconut stumps from different locations in Malaysia were compared using intracellular and extracellular isozyme analyses with a view to determine the genetic similarities and differences between the two groups of Ganoderm. Five intracellular enzymes, namely, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), hexokinase (HK) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), were successfully typed using isoelectric focusing (IEF) at pH ranges of 3.5 - 9.5 and 5.5 - 8.5. The banding patterns of the five intracellular enzymes could not be used to differentiate between the Ganoderm isolates from oil palm and coconut stumps as variations occurred within and between the isolates of the two groups of Ganoderm. Three types of extracellular pectinase isozymes viz., polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase (PE) and pectin lyase (PL), were detected using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The pectinase isozyme patterns also did not produce specific patterns that could differentiate between the two groups of Ganoderm. Cluster analysis of the pectinase isozymes showed that the oil palm and coconut isolates were clustered together, indicating a close relationship.


Kajian perbandingan menggunakan analisis isozim intrasel and ekstrasel isolat-isolat Ganoderm pokok kelapa sawit yang dijangkiti dan tunggul kelapa dari beberapa kawasan di Malaysia telah dijalankan untuk melihat persamaan dan perbezaan dari segi genetik kedua-dua kumpulan Ganoderm tersebut. Lima enzim intrasel iaitu alkohol dehidrogenase ADH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), hexokinase (HK) and glutamat oxaloasetat transaminase GOT) telah berjaya di perolehi menggunakan teknik 'isoelektrik focusing' (IEF) pada julat pH 3.5 - 9.5 dan 5.5 -*.5. Corak jalur kelima-lima enzim tersebut tidak dapat membezakan isolat-isolat Ganoderm kelapa sawit dan tunggul selapa disebabkan terdapatnya variasi pada corak jalur yang dihasilkan. Tiga jenis enzim pektinase dapat di kesan iaitu poligalakturonase (PG), pectin esterase (PE) and pectin liase (PL). Corak jalur isozim pektinase juga tidak menghasilkan sebarang jalur yang spesifik yang dapat membezakan di antara isolat Ganoderm kelapa sawit dan tunggul kelapa. Daripada analisa kluster isozim pektinase didapati isolat-isolat Ganoderm kelapa sawit dan tunggul kelapa berada dalam kelompok yang sama di mana menunjukkan kedua-dua kumpulan Ganoderm tersebut mempunyai pertalian yang rapat.

Key words: Ganoderm, oil palm, coconut, isozymes, isoelectric focusing


Bridge, P.D., Holderness, M., Paterson, R.R.M. and Rutherford, M. 1995. Multidisciplinary characterization of fungal pathogens. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO, 25: 125 - 131.

Collmer, A. and Keen, N.T. 1986. The role of pectic enzymes in plant pathogenesis. Annual Review of Pathology, 24: 384 - 409.

Cruickshank, R.H. and Wade, G(C. 1980. Detection of pectin enzymes in pectin-acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 107: 177- 181.

Idris, A.S. 1999. Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Malaysia : Factors associated with variation in disease severity. Ph.D Thesis. Wye College, University of London.

Manwell, C. and Baker, C.M.A. 1968. Genetic variation of isocitrate, malate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in snails of the genus Cepaea - introgressive hybridization, polymorphism and pollution? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 28: 195 - 209.

Mays, B., Roberts, D.W. and Soper, R.S. 1979. Intraspecific genetic variability in laboratory strains of Entomophthora as determined by enzyme electrophoresis. Experimental Mycology, 3: 289 - 297.

Miller, R.N.G., HcMeniess, M., Bridge, P.D., Paterson, R.R.M., Sariah, M., Hussin, M.Z. and Hisley, H. 1994. A multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of Ganoderma in oil palm cropping systems. In: Ganodermo Systematics, Phytopathology and Pharma­cology. P.K. Buchanan, R.S. Hseu. and J.M. Moncalvo (eds.). Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59A, B. 5th Internationa] Mycological Congress, Vancouver, August 14 -21. pp. 57-66

Miller, R.N.G. 1995. The characterization ol Ganoderma populations in oil palm cropping systems. PhD Thesis. University of Reading.

Nawawi, A. and Ho, Y.W. 1990. Effect ol temperature and pH on growth pattern ol Ganoderma boninense from oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika, 13: 303 -307.

Paterson, R.R.M. , Bridge, P.D., Crosswaite, M.J. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1989. A reappraisal of the terverticilliate Pennicillia using biochemical, physiology and morphological features III. An evaluation of pectinase and amylase isozymes for species characterization. Journal of General Microbiology, 135: 2979 -2991.

Rohlf, F.J. 1994. NTSYS-pc Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System, Version 1.8. Exeter Publishing Ltd. Setauket, New York, USA.

Romesburg, H.C. 1984. Cluster Analysis for Researchers. Lifetime Learning Publications Belmont, California.

Singh, G. 1990. Ganoderma - The scourge of oil palms in the coastal areas. Planter, 67: 421 -444.

Tseng, T.C. and Chang, L.S. 1988. Studies on Ganoderma lucidum III. Production of pectolytic enzymes. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica, 29: 23 - 32.

Turner, P.O. 1981. Oil Palm Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press.

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 48(4) November 2019


Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Thomson Reuters Master Journal List, Myjurnal, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to MyCite 2014 report, MABJ ranked 95 out of 142 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.