Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size


E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (1999) 28(1&2): 73-77



1Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science,
P.O. Box 32, Khartoum North, University of Khartoum, Sudan
2Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Endemic Diseases, P.O. Box 11463, Khartoum, University of Khartoum, Sudan
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


Both humoral and cellular immune responses following administration of Levamisole or egg white powder (EWP) ir Newcastle disease (ND) vaccinated chickens were measured. Haemagglutination inhibition test to measure humoral immunity and lymphocyte proliferation assay to measure the cellular immunity were used. Both groups of chickens (those receiving Levamisole and EWP preparation) showed high haemagglutinating antibody response especially on day 20 post-vaccination. However, Levamisole treatment resulted in higher antibody response compared to EWP. The immunomodulatory effect of EWP on cell-mediated immunity, as measured by lymphocyte proliferation, was better than that due to Levamisole especially when measured 18 days post-vaccination.

Key words: antibody, cell-mediated immunity, egg white powder, Levamisole, Newcastle disease virus


Ali, A.S., Mukhtar, M.M. and Mohammed, M.E.H. 1997. Proliferative responses by chicken lymphocytes following vaccinations with Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and fowlpox virus antigens. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 9(2):51-54.

Allan, W.H., Lancaster, J.E. and Toth, B. 1978. Newcastle disease vaccines - their production and use. FAO Animal Production Series. No. 10. FAO, Rome.

Araki, S., Suzaki, M. and Hujimoto, M. 1992. Enhanced resistance to bacterial infections in mice by oral administraion of an active egg white product. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 54:1005-1056.

Bounous, D.I., Campagnoli, R.P. and Brown, J. 1992. Comparison of MTT colorimetric assay and tritiated thymidine uptake for lymphocyte proliferation assays using chicken splenocytes. Avian Diseases, 36:1002-1027.

Brugh, M. 1978. A simple method for recording and analyzing serological data. Avian Diseases, 22:362-365.

Gerlier, D. and Thomasset, N. 1986. Use of colorimetric assay to measure cell activation. Journal of Immunolosical Methods. 94:57-64.

Kulkarni, V.B., Mulbagal, A.N., Paranjape, J.B. and Manda, A.V. 1973. Immunostimulationg effect of tetramisole on antibody formatiorj against Newcastle disease virus in chicks. Indian Veterinary Journal, 50:225-227.

Maheswaran, S.K., Dua, S.K. and Thies, E.S. 1980. Studies on Pasterulla multocida. IX. Levamisole-induced augmentation of immune responses to live fowl cholera vaccine. Avian Diseases, 24:71-81.

Namba, Y., Hidak, J., Taki, K. and Morimoto, T. 1981. Augumentaion of humoral and cellular immune responses with the bacteriolytic lysozyme enzyme. Infection and Immunity, 13: 80-583.

Renoux, G. 1971. Immunomodulatory activities of the antihelmintic drug "Levamisole" to some infectious agents. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2:397- 401.

Renoux, G. and Renoux, M. 1971. Effect immunostimulant d'un imicdothiazole dans F immunisation des souris contre F infection par Brucells abortus. C.R. Academic Sciences, 2720:349-350.

Singh, K.C.P. and Dhawedkar, R.G. 1993. Immunomodulating effects of Levamisole in chicks immunocompromised by infectious bursal disease virus. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25: 11-14.

Thienpont, D., Vanparijs, O.F.J., Raoymackers, A.H.M. and Janssen, P.A.J. 1966. Levamisole, a strong anthelmintic, does not show any antibacterial or antiviral activity. Nature, 209:1089-1092.

Valentine, F.T. 1971. In: The Transformation and Proliferation of Lymphocyte In Vitro. Revillard, J.P. (ed.), Karger, Basel, pp.6-42.

Vyas, G.P., Dholakia, P.M. and Kathiria, L.G. 1987. Studies on immunomodulation by Levamisole along with vaccination in chicks against Ranikhet disease. Indian Veterinary Journal, 64:456-462.

Westbury, H.A. 1984. Comparison of the immunogenicity of NDV strains V4, Bl and Lasota in chickens. Australian Veterinary Journal, 61: 5-9.

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 48(4) November 2019


Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Thomson Reuters Master Journal List, Myjurnal, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to MyCite 2014 report, MABJ ranked 95 out of 142 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.