Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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34-2-08

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2005) 34(2): 61–65

EFFECTS OF CHITOSAN ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED MURINE LISTERIOSIS

SEH, C.C., NADARAJAH, K.*, AHMAD, I.B. and ZAINAL-ABIDIN, A.H.

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

The effect of chitosan treatment on experimentally induced listeriosis in mice was investigated. Fungal chitosan was obtained from the mycelia of Absidia butleri dr using hot alkali and acid treatments and comparisons were made with crustacean chitosan of shrimp origin. Fungal chitosan was not found to confer protection in Balb/c male mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection, when last administered intraperitoneally 24 hr prior to the challenge with this microbe. The treatment of fungal chitosan at 50 mg/kg body weight every other day for a week not only failed to prolong but also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the survival rate of the infected mice in which all of them died in 3 days post-infection. Analysis of blood samples taken from the mice before they succumbed to the infection revealed that the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was suppressed significantly (p<0.05). In order to show the effect of chitosan in enhancing the immune response of mice towards listerial infection, mice were immunized with inactivated L. monocytogenes. Treatment with 50 mg/kg of FC in immunized mice significantly reduced the level IFN-gamma (p<0.05) in spleen cells culture supernatant. In addition to a reduction in IFN-gamma levels, there was a 2.5-fold increase in the bacterial numbers in the spleen of mice receiving the same treatment. These results suggest that treatment with fungal chitosan might decrease the resistance of non-immune and immune mice against listerial infection by lowering the blood levels of IFN-gamma and hence enhance bacterial growth and mortalities in mice. Although listeriosis in Balb/c mice may be aggravated by the treatment with chitosan but the potential usage of this polysaccharide and its processed forms need further studies.


ABSTRAK

Kesan kitosan ke atas kerintangan mencit terhadap infeksi L. monocytogenes telah diselidiki. Kitosan kulat diekstrak daripada dinding sel kulat Absidia butleri dr menggunakan kaedah rawatan alkali dan asid panas dan perbandingan dengan kitosan krustasia daripada sumber udang telah dilakukan. Pada dos 50 mg/kg, kitosan kulat didapati tidak memberikan perlindungan kepada mencit BALB/c terhadap cabaran dengan listeria berdasarkan cerapan di mana semua mencit mati dalam masa 3 hari posinfeksi (p<0.05). Analisis ke atas sampel darah yang diperolehi 24 jam posinfeksi menunjukkan tahap penghasilan IFN-ã telah direncat dengan signifikan (p<0.05) berbanding kawalan yang tidak diberikan perlakuan dengan kitosan. Bagi menunjukkan kesan kitosan dalam meningkatkan respons keimunan mencit terhadap infeksi patogen tersebut, mencit diimunkan dengan L. monocytogenes tak aktif. Perlakuan kitosan kulat pada mencit terimun mengurangkan aras IFN-gamma dalam supernatan kultur sel limpa. Dalam masa penekanan dalam aras IFN-gamma berlaku, terdapat peningkatan sebanyak 2.5 kali ganda bilangan bakteria dalam limpa mencit yang menerima perlakuan yang sama. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahawa kitosan kulat mengurangkan kerintangan mencit terhadap listeriosis dengan menekan penghasilan IFN-gamma dalam darah atau limpa yang membawa kepada peningkatan pertumbuhan bakteria dan kematian pada mencit. Oleh itu, kitosan yang diekstrak dari A.butleri dan digunakan dalam bentuk natif didapati memberikan kesan imunomodulatori yang negatif ke atas keresistanan mencit terhadap infeksi L. monocytogenes.

Key words: Chitosan, Listeria monocytogenes, murine listeriosis, IFN-gamma

REFERRENCES

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