Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2006) 35(1): 37–42


LIAN, L.H.1* and KOH, C.L.2

1 Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya.
2 National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Y chromosomal markers are beneficial for application in investigation of forensic cases, paternity disputes and human population studies. Y-interspersed short tandem repeats (STRs) are especially useful in analyzing mixed DNA samples, for e.g., those found in sexual assault cases, as well as in paternity testing where the alleged father is not available but other patrilineal relatives are. DYS287 and DYS385 are commonly used markers located on the long arm of chromosome Y. This study examines the usefulness of both markers for use, particularly in rural areas, where there is limited access to high-end technology based equipment, i.e., automated DNA sequencers. DNA extraction was carried out on samples obtained and PCRs performed to amplify specific targeted regions. Gel electrophoresis was used to confirm successful amplification, and this was followed by staining protocols to qualify and quantify the different alleles (and genotypes) observed. The results show the distribution and frequencies of DYS287 and DYS385 in the Kadazan-Dusun, comparative to the findings of other populations. As this is a pilot study, the population data generated will enable the markers to be potentially considered in forensic testing and paternity determination, as well as for further human population and anthropological-based research in Malaysia.


Penanda kromosom Y adalah berguna untuk aplikasi dalam penyiasatan kes forensik, pertikaian paterniti dan kajian populasi manusia. Ulangan pendek perantara tandem Y atau “Y-interspersed short tandem repeats (STRs)” adalah sangat penting dalam menganalisa sampel campuran DNA, seperti yang terdapat dalam kes jenayah seks dan juga dalam pengujian paterniti sekiranya sampel ‘bapa’ tidak diperolehi tetapi ahli keluarga dari keturunan “patrilineal”. DYS287 dan DYS385 adalah penanda yang dijumpai pada bahagian lengan panjang kromosom Y. Kajian ini akan melihat kegunaan kedua-dua penanda, terutamanya di kawasan pedalaman, di mana terdapat kesulitan untuk mendapatkan mesin berteknologi tinggi, seperti “DNA sequencer” atau penjujuk automatik DNA. Pengekstrakan DNA dilakukan ke atas sampel yang diperolehi dan PCR dijalankan untuk mengamplifikasi jujukan tertentu. Elektroforesis gel digunakan untuk menentukan kejayaan PCR dan ini diikuti dengan protokol pewarnaan untuk membezakan kualiti dan kuantiti alel (dan genotip) yang berlainan. Keputusan menunjukkan frekuensi dan taburan DYS287 dan DYS385 yang dibandingkan dengan data yang didapati daripada populasi yang lain. Memandangkan ini merupakan suatu kajian permulaan, maklumat yang didapati akan membolehkan penanda- penanda tersebut untuk diambilkira dalam ujian forensik dan penentuan paterniti, serta kajian-kajian yang lebih mendalam mengenai populasi manusia and antropologi di Malaysia.

Key words: DNA polymorphisms, Y chromosome, Kadazan-Dusun, East Malaysia


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