Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol.VRE IN 35(1): 49–56


OOI, W.L.1, HARYIANI, Y.2, LESLEY, M.B.2, TUNUNG, R.2, JURIN, W.G.2, WONG, C.M.V.L.4, CHEAH, Y.K.3 and SON, R.2*

1 Sime Darby Technology Center, No. 2 Jalan Tandang, 46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor
2 National Food Safety Research Center, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology
3 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4 Biotechnology Research Institute, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates were detected from whole chicken, chicken faecal, clinical, ulam raja (Cosmos caudatus) and kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), samples. None were detected from the pork and beef samples. The isolates were examined for their resistance to various antibiotics and the presence of the van genes. The spectrum of VRE isolates from the various samples were: Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus raffinosus and Enterococcus faecium in whole chicken samples; Enterococcus raffinosus and Enterococcus faecium in the chicken faecal samples; Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in clinical samples; Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus raffinosus in ulam raja; Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus gallinarum in kangkong. An antibiogram carried out showed multiple antibiotic resistant profiles for all VRE isolates with MIC values for vancomycin from 30 ?g/ml to more than 256 ?g/ml. The analysis of the van genes by PCR method revealed the presence of the vanA, vanB and vanC1 among the Enterococcus spp. Our data suggest the distribution of vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus spp. outside the clinical setting.


Pencilan enterokoki yang rintang terhadap vankomisin (VRE) telah dikesan daipada sampel ayam, tahi ayam, klinikal, ulam raja (Cosmos caudatus) dan kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica). Tidak ada VRE dikesan daripada sampel daging khinzir dan lembu. Pencilan dikaji untuk kerintangan kepada pelbagai antibiotik dan juga untuk kehadiran gen van. Spektrum pencilan VRE dari pelbagai sampel adalah: Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus raffinosus dan Enterococcus faecium dalam sampel ayam; E. raffinosus dan E. faecium dalam sampel tahi ayam; E. faecalis dan E. faecium dalam sampel klinikal; E. faecium dan E. raffinosus dalam ulam raja; E. faecium dan E. gallinarum dalam kangkong. Antibiogram yang dijalankan menunjukkan kerintangan antibiotik pelbagai bagi kesemua pencilan VRE dengan nilai MIC untuk vankomisin di antara 30 ?g/ml sehingga lebih dari 256 ?g/ml. Analisis gen van menunjukkan kehadiran vanA, vanB dan vanC1 dikalangan Enterokokus spp. Data ini menunjukkan penyebaran Enterokokus spp. yang rintang vankomisin di luar bidang klinikal.

Key words: VRE, antibiotic resistance, PCR, van gene


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