Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

36-1-01

E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (2007) 36(1): 1–6

LOSS OF METALS FROM TOXICITY TESTING: EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT KINDS OF SUBSTRATES AND FOOD

M. SHUHAIMI-OTHMAN*

School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

ABSTRACT

In toxicity testing, one of major problem is maintaining a constant concentration of the test chemical in water. This study has been conducted to assess loss of metals from solution using plastic (polystyrene) petri dishes, and the effect of using different kinds of substrate (leaf and cotton gauze), food and equilibration. Three heavy metals have been used in this study i.e. zinc, cadmium and copper. This study showed that in experiments with copper and cadmium, a very significant differences between using leaf and not using any leaf as substrate in affecting the reduction of metal concentrations. The presence of food (rabbit pellet) with leaf showed no significant effect in reduction of metal compared with leaf alone. Seventy two hours equilibration resulted in a significant reduction of the loss of metal from solution. However, equilibrating metal solution with leaf and without leaf showed no significant effect on loss of metal from solution for any metals (Zn, Cd and Cu). Using a different substrate (cotton gauze) with 72h equilibration caused no difference in reduction of metals from solution for copper, cadmium and zinc compared with leaf. Generally, the higher the metal concentration used in solution, the higher the reduction that occurred and between the three metals, zinc showed the most reduction followed by copper and cadmium (Zn>Cu>Cd) and the highest reduction of metal occurred after 10 hours of exposure.


ABSTRAK

Bagi kajian ketoksikan, salah satu masalah utama adalah untuk mengekalkan kepekatan bahan kimia dalam larutan. Kajian ini telah dijalankan bagi mengkaji pengaruh penggunaan substrat yang berlainan (daun dan kain kasa), makanan dan kesan penyeimbangan logam terhadap kehilangan logam daripada larutan menggunakan piring petri plastik (polystyrene). Tiga logam berat telah dikaji iaitu zink, kadmium dan kuprum. Hasil kajian in menunjukkan bagi eksperimen menggunakan logam kuprum dan kadmium, terdapat perbezaan yang sangat signifikan terhadap kehilangan logam tersebut apabila menggunakan daun berbanding jika tidak menggunakan daun. Kehadiran makanan (pelet arnab) dengan daun tidak menunjukkan kesan yang signifikan terhadap kehilangan logam daripada larutan berbanding penggunaan daun sahaja. Penyeimbangan logam dalam larutan bersama daun dan tanpa daun menunjukkan kesan yang tidak signifikan terhadap kehilangan logam daripada larutan bagi semua logam kajian. Penggunaan substrat yang berlainan sama ada kain kasa atau daun dengan penyeimbangan logam selama 72 jam tidak menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan dalam pengurangan logam. Secara umumnya peningkatan kepekatan logam dalam larutan akan menyebabkan peningkatan kehilangan logam tersebut daripada larutan dan antara tiga logam kajian, didapati logam zink menunjukkan kehilangan yang paling tinggi daripada larutan diikuti oleh kuprum dan kadmium manakala kehilangan logam paling tinggi didapati selepas 10 jam pendedahan.

Key words: metal, loss, equilibration, substrate, food

REFERRENCES

Benes, P. and Kopicka, K. (1976). The state and adsorption behaviour of traces of cadmium in aqueous solutions. Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, 38: 2043–2048.

Canterford, G.S., Buchanan, A.S. and Ducker, S.C. (1978). Accumulation of heavy metals by the Marine Diatom Ditylum brighwelli. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 29: 613-622.

Gardiner, J. (1974). The chemistry of cadmium in natural water-II. The adsorption of cadmium on river muds and naturally occurring solids. Water Research, 8: 157–164.

Hennig, H.F.K.O. and Greenwood, P.J. (1981). The loss of cadmium and zinc from sea water during accumulation experiments: its implication on toxicity threshold concentra- tions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 12(2): 47–50.

Issaq, H.J. and Zielinski Jr, W.L. (1974). Loss of lead from aqueous solution during storage. Analytical Chemistry, 46: 1328–1329.

King, W.G., Rodriguez, J.M. and Wai, C.M. (1974). Losses of trace concentrations of cadmium from aqueous solution during storage in glass container. Analytical Chemistry, 46: 771–773.

Lo, J.M. and Wai, C.M. (1975). Mercury loss from water during storage: Mechanisms and prevention. Analytical Chemistry, 47: 1869– 1870.

Olson, K.R. (1977). Loss of carbon-14 and mercury-203 labeled methylmercury from various solution. Analytical Chemistry, 49: 23–26.

Posselt, H.S. and Weber Jr., W.J. (1971). Environmental chemistry of cadmium in aqueous system. Technical Report, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Rand, G.M., Wells, P.G. and McCarty, L.S. (1995). Introduction to aquatic toxicology. In: Rand, G.M. (Ed.), Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis.

Robertson, D.E. (1968). The adsorption of trace elements in sea water on various container surfaces. Analytica chim Acta, 42: 533–536.

Shuhaimi-Othman, M. and Pascoe, D. (2002). Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper. Ecotoxi- cology and Environmental Safety 53: 59–64.

Shuhaimi-Othman, M. and Pascoe, D. (2001a). Growth, development and reproduction of Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) in laboratory culture. Crustaceana 74(2): 171–181.

Shuhaimi-Othman, M. and Pascoe, D. (2001b). Acute toxicity of copper, zinc and cadmium to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Malaysian Applied Biology 30(1&2): 1–8.

Walker, C.H., Hopkin, S.P., Sibly, R.M. and Peakall, D.B. (1996). Principal of Ecotoxico- logy. Taylor & Francis, 321pp.
 

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 49(2) July 2020

coverphoto

Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Thomson Reuters Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to MyCite 2014 report, MABJ ranked 95 out of 142 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.