Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

36-1-03

E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (2007) 36(1): 15–21

PREVALENCE AND CONTROL OF FOOD BORNE PARASITIC ZOONOSIS IN PAKISTAN

AZHAR MAQBOOL1*, S.A. ALI2, A. TANVEER3 and S. MASOOD1

1 Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
2 Department of Zoology, Queen Mary College, Lahore, Pakistan
3 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

ABSTRACT

Parasitic infections are prevalent in areas of poor sanitation or where night soil is commonly used as fertilizer. People in endemic areas do not wash food thoroughly with clear water before eating and faeces are not disposed far from food or water sources. A survey of some parasitic diseases was made in 12 various localities (6 urban and 6 rural) of Lahore. A total of 3600 human faecal samples were examined by direct smear, floatation and sedimentation techniques. Of these 960 (26.66%) harboured parasitic ova, oocysts and/or cysts. From 960 infested samples 510 (53.12%), 215 (22.39%), 165 (17.18%) and 70 (7.29%) showed one, two, three and four types of parasitic ova, oocysts or cysts respectively. Overall helminth infection rate was 612 (63.75%) and protozoan 348 (36.25%). Helminthic infestation included Ascaris lumbricoides 245 (40.03%), Enterobious vermicularis 100 (16.33%), Ancylostoma duodenale 70 (11.43%), Trichuris trichiura 38 (6.20%), Hymenolepis nana 20 (3.26%), Echinococcus granulosus 67 (10.94%), Taenia spp. 45 (7.35%) and Fasciolopsis buski 27 (4.41%). Amongst 960 cases, 348 showed protozoan infection indicating Giardia spp. 180 (51.72%), Cryptosporidium spp. 96 (27.58%) and Isospora spp. 72 (20.68%). In another study, the efficacy of herbal drugs was compared with each other and with modern anthelmintic i.e. mebendazole (vermox). Lagenaria siceraria seeds at the dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight was 92.3% effective against nematodal infection whereas it was 92% against cestodal infection. Caesalpinia crista was 84% effective against nematodal infection and 88.9 % effective against cestodal infection. Mebendazole at the recommended dose rate was found to be 96.3% and 92% effective respectively against nematodal and cestodal infections. This work indicates the prevalence of important causes of parasitic zoonosis in Pakistan environment and also suggests control programme.

Key words: Food borne parasites, Zoonosis, Prevalence, Pakistan

REFERRENCES

Akhtar, T., Tehsin, N. and Usman, S. 1993. Intestinal parasitic burden in the local hospitals of Lahore. Biologia, 38(1): 42-48.

Akweley, A. Crompton, D.W.T., Walters, D.E. and Arnold, S.E. 1986. An investigation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in pre-school children in Ghana. Parasitology, 92: 209-217.

Ali, N. 1993. A survey of intestinal helminths of man in Kurram Agency (FATA), Pakistan. M.Sc. Thesis Q.A. University, Islamabad.

Amin, N., Akhtar, M.S. Maqbool, A., Ammara, H.T. and Tanveer, A. 2003. Anticestodal and antinematodal activity of Lagenaria siceraria seeds and Caesalpinia crista seeds in children. Sci. Int. 15(3): 305-307.

Anwar, C.M., Sarfraz, I., Mufti, A.C. and Ali, S. 1984. Incidence of intestinal parasites in children of Rawalpindi and adjoining areas. Pak. Paed. J. 8(3): 148-152.

Ash, L.R. and Orihel, T.C., 1987. A guide in Laboratory Procedures and Identification, Reven Press, 19.

Atukorala, T.M.S. and Lanerolle, P. 1999. Soil transmitted helminthic infection and its effect on nutritional status of adolescent school girls of low socio-economic status in Sri Lanka. J. Trop. Pediatrics, 45(1): 18-22.

Beaver, P.C., Tung, R.C. and Cupp, E.W. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Brooks, R.M., Latham, M.C. and Crompton, D.W.T. 1982. The relationship of nutrition and health to worker productivity in Kenya. East African, Med. J. 56: 413-431.

Campos, B., Lopez-Abente, A.G. and Andres- Cercadilo, A.M. 2000. Risk factors for E. granulosus infection- a case control study. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 62: 329-334.

Cho, S.Y., Kim, J.H. and Park, S.H. 1990. Status of intestinal parasite infections in inhabitants of Palmer Guayas Province, Ecuador. Korean J. Parasitol. 28(2): 109-113.

Coles, M.E. 1986. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2nd ed. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.

Conchedda, M., Palmas, C., Bortoletti, G., Cabriele, F. and Ecca, A.R. 1997. Hydatidosis a comprehensive view of Sardinian case parsitolgia, 39: 359-366.

Gulendame, S.O. and Omer, P. 1995. A survey of intestinal parasites in students of adult educational centre in Siras, Turkey. J. Egyptian. Soc. Parasitol. 25(2): 303-310.

Hall, A., Latham, M.C., Crompton, D.W.T. and Stephenson, L.S. 1981. Taenia saginata (cestode) in western Kenya. The reliability of faecal examination in diagnosis. Parasitol. 83: 91-101.

Kightlinger Lon, K., John, R. Seed and Mgnna, B. Kightlinger, 1995. Epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in children in Ranomafana rain forest, Madagascar. J. Parasitol. 8(12): 159- 165.

Kilama, W.L. 1985. Sanitation in control of Ascariasis (ii) Ascariasis and its public health significance. Crompton, D.W.T., Nesheim, M.C. and Pawalowski, Z.S. (editors). London, Tailer and Francis, 229-237.

Laurence, D.R. and Benneth, P.N. 1994. Clinical Pharmacology, 7th ed. ELBS, UK. 209-210.

Ludwig, K.M., Frei, F., Alvares-Filho, F. and Ribeiro-Paes, J.T. 1999. Correlation between sanitary conditions and intestinal parasites in the population of Assis, Sao Paulo State- Revista-da sociedade-Brasileira-de-Medicina- Tropical. 32(5): 547-555.

Maqbool, A., Hayat, C.S., Hanif, N.R., Hayat, B. and Awan, M.A. 1999. Echinococcus granulosus in dogs and its zoonotic importance and chemotherapy. J. Vet. Malaysia 9(2): 79-80.

Messou, E., Sangare, S.V., Josseran, R., Corre, C.L.E., Guelain, J., Le Corre, C. 1997. Effect of drainage and domestic hygiene on the incidence of Ascariasis and Ancylostomiasis in children aged 2 to 4 years in rural areas of Cote d Ivoire Bulletin de La societe de Pathologic–Exotique 90: 48-50.

Moskey, M.E. and Harwood, P.D.1941. Methods evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics. Am. J. Vet. Res. 2: 55-59.

Nagaty, H.F., Elahi, R. and Mohajeri, M. 1978. Parasitological investigations on patients in Mashhad, Iran. Annals Trop. Med. Parasitol. 74(4): 369-375.

Obiamive, B.A. and Nmrosi, P. 1992. Human gastrointestinal parasites in Bendal State, Nigeria Angew, Parasitol. 32(3): 177-183.

Pal, R.A. and Malik, Z. 1979. Incidence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Islamabad. Pak. J. Zoo. 11(1): 105-108.

Pal, R.A. and Subhani, F. 1989. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in primary school children of Dir district Pakistan, J. Sci. and Tech., Univ. Peshawar, 13: 99-102.

Pawlowski, Z.S. and Lindberg, R. 1996. Helminthic Zoonoses affecting human health and nutrition in Africa. Proceedings Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 27-30 August 1995.

Peng-weiDong, Zhou-Xian Min, Crompton, D.W.T., W.D., Zhou, X.M. 1998. Ascariasis in China. Advances in Parasitology. 41: 109- 149.

Qureshi, R.Q. 1995. Intestinal helminth parasites with emphasis on hookworm of man in and around Islamabad. M.Sc. Thesis Q.A. University, Islamabad.

Rockiene, A. 1995. the human parasitoses in Lithuania. Acta-Zoologica- Lithuania, Parasitologia, 25: 3-7.

Sharaifi, I. And Keshararz, H. 1997. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Afghan refugees in Kerman city, Iran, Hamdard Medicus. XL(4): 100-104.

Smith, H., Dekaminshy, R., Niwas, S., Soto, R. and Joly, P. 2001. Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and T. trichiura and associated socio-demographic variable in four rural Honduran communities. Mem. In. Oswaldo Cruz, 96: 303-314.

Theine H., Than S., Htay H.A., Myintlwin and Thein M.M. 1984. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides. Royal Soc. J. Trop. Med. Hygn. 78: 497-504.

Torres, P., Franjolo, R., Perez, J., Auad, S., Hermosilla, C., Flores, L., Riquelme, J., Salazar, S., Miranda, J. and Montefusco, A. 1995. Intestinal gastrohelminths in man and domestic animals in riverside section of Valadivia River basin, Chile. Boletin-Chileno de-parasitologia, 50(3-4): 57-66.

Walsh, J.A. and Warren, K.S. 1979. Selective Health Care, New England, J. Med. 31: 967- 974.

Anonymous, 1991 Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. WHO series laboratory manuals. 1st ed. England.
 

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 49(2) July 2020

coverphoto

Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Thomson Reuters Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to MyCite 2014 report, MABJ ranked 95 out of 142 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.