Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2011) 40(2):27–36



1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
2School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Genetic diversity within and among six glyphosate-resistant (R) and eight glyphosate-susceptible (S) Eleusine indica populations was determined using isozyme markers. Genetic variations at 13 enzyme loci from 8 enzyme systems were determined in a total of 840 accessions. Mean percentage of polymorphic loci (P = 23.08 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1.2) and effective number of alleles per locus (Ae = 1.1) were similar for both R and S populations. Levels of expected heterozygosity (He) were also low and not significantly different (P> 0.10) between the R (He = 0.067) and S (He = 0.069) biotypes but levels of observed heterozygosity (Ho) were significantly lower (P< 0.10) in the S populations (Ho = 0.003) than in the R populations (Ho = 0.014). However, the overall degree of genetic differentiation for the 14 populations was high (FST = 0.53), indicating high genetic divergence among the populations surveyed which was mainly contributed by the S populations (FST = 0.622). The total gene flow was low (Nm = 0.225) with mean genetic distance of 0.046, which is consistent with high FST values. UPGMA clustering analysis revealed two main clusters: cluster I consisting of the S populations from Kuala Selangor, and Sungai Tangkas, Selangor; Jasin, Melaka; Pulau Tikus, Pulau Pinang; Bidor, Perak and Chaah, Johor while cluster II consists of all the R populations and the S populations from Temerloh, Pahang and Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan.


Kepelbagaian genetik di dalam dan antara enam populasi rintang-glifosat (R) dan lapan populasi rentan-glifosat (S) telah ditentukan menggunakan penanda isozim. Variasi genetik pada 13 lokus enzim daripada 8 sistem enzim ditentukan dalam sejumlah 840 aksesi. Purata peratus lokus polimorfik (P = 23.08 %), purata alel setiap lokus (A = 1.2) dan bilangan alel berkesan setiap lokus (Ae = 1.1) adalah agak serupa untuk kedua-dua populasi R dan S. Keheterozigotan dijangka (He) juga rendah dan tidak berbeza secara signifikan (P> 0.10) antara biotip R (He = 0.067) dan S (He = 0.069) tetapi keheterozigotan dicerap (Ho) rendah secara signifikan (P< 0.10) dalam populasi S (Ho = 0.003) berbanding populasi R (Ho =0.014). Namun, perbezaan genetik keseluruhan untuk 14 populasi adalah tinggi (FST = 0.53), menunjukkan kepelbagaian genetik tinggi antara populasi yang dikaji yang sebahagian besarnya disumbang oleh populasi S (FST = 0.622). Jumlah aliran gen adalah rendah (Nm = 0.225) dengan purata jarak genetik 0.046, konsisten dengan nilai FST yang tinggi. Analisis UPGMA menunjukkan dua kumpulan utama: kumpulan I terdiri daripada semua populasi S dari Kuala Selangor dan Sungai Tangkas, Selangor; Jasin, Melaka; Pulau Tikus, Pulau Pinang; Bidor, Perak dan Chaah, Johor manakala kumpulan II mewakili semua populasi R dan populasi S Temerloh, Pahang dan Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan.

Key words: genetic diversity, glyphosate, resistance, Eleusine indica, isozyme markers


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