Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

42_2_01

E-mail Print PDF

Malays. Appl. Biol. (2013) 42(2): 1–12

 

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS



NORMAH, M.N.*, ROHANI, E.R. and MOHAMED-HUSSEIN, Z.A.



Institute of Systems Biology (INBIOSIS), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43600, UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

*Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



ABSTRACT



Somatic embryogenesis is an illustration of plant totipotency. There are many factors involved in causing development switching during somatic embryogenesis. These include combination of plant growth regulators, media, pretreatments and culture environments, which relate to various molecular events encompassing gene expression and signal transduction pathways. The present review collates information on various aspects of somatic embryogenesis focusing on genes involved, proteins and metabolites that have been identified during the last few years. Future work on integrating various data on somatic embryogenesis using the computational or systems biology approach is suggested.

Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, genes, proteins, metabolites



REFERRENCES 


Aboshama, H.M.S. 2011. Somatic embryogenesis proliferation, maturation and germination in Cajanus cajan. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(1): 86-95.

Ahloowalia, B.S. 1991. Somatic embryos in monocots. Their genesis and genetic stability. Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veget-Bot. 14: 223-235.

Albrecht, C., Russinova, E., Kemmerling, B., Kwaaitaal, M. and de Vries, S.C. 2008. Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase proteins serve brassinosteroid-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Plant Physiology 148: 611-619.

Akhtar, N. 2013. Endogenous polyamines: a temporal cellular modulator of somatic embryogenesis in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv Allahabad Safeda. Research in Plant Sciences 1(2): 4-14.

Arroyo-Herrera, A., Ku-González, A., Canche-Moo, R., Quiróz-Figueroa, F.R., Loyola Vargas, V., Rodríguez Zapata, L.C., Burgeff D’Hondt, C., Suárez-Solís, V.M. and Castaño, E. 2008. Expression of WUSCHEL inCoffea canephora causes ectopic morphogenesis and increases somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 94: 171-180.

Balaraju, K., Saravanan, S., Agastian, P. and Ignacimuthu, S. 2011. A rapid system for micropropagation of Swertia chirata Buch-Ham. ex Wall.: an endangered medicinal herb via direct somatic embryogenesis. ActaPhysiologiae Plantarum, 33(4): 1123-1133.

Baudino, S., Hansen, S., Brettschneider, R., Hecht, V., Dresselhaus, T., Lo¨rz, H., Dumas, C. and Rogowsky, P. 2001. Molecular characterization of two novel maize LRR receptor-like kinases, which belong to the SERK gene family. Planta 213: 1–10.

Ben Mahmoud, K., Delporte, F., Muhovski, Y., Elloumi, N., Jemmali, A. and Druart, P. 2013. Expression of PiABP19, Picdc2 and PiSERK3 during induction of somatic embryogenesis in leaflets of Prunus incisa(Thunb.). Molecular Biology Reports, 40(2): 1569-1577.

Bernier, F. and Berna, A. 2001. Germins and germin-like proteins: plant do-all proteins. But what do they do exactly? Plant Physiol Biochem 39: 545–554.

Bertoldi, D., Tassoni, A., Martinelli, L. and Nello, B. 2004. Polyamines and somatic embryogenesis in two Vitis vinifera cultivars. Physiol. Plant., 120: 657-666.

Bian F., Zheng C., Qu F., Gong X. and You, C. 2010. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Cyclamen persicum Mill. Plant Mol Biol. Rep 28: 22-31.

Bossio, E., Díaz Paleo, A., Vas, M., Baroli, I., Acevedo, A. and Ríos, R.D. 2013. Silencing of the glutathione biosynthetic pathway inhibits somatic embryogenesis in wheat. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 112(2): 239-248.

Boutilier, K., Offringa, R., Sharma, V.K., Kieft, H., Ouellet, T., Zhang, L.M., Hattori, J., Liu, C.M., van Lammeren, A.A.M., Miki, B.L.A., Custers, J.B.M. and Campagne, M.M.V. 2002. Ectopic expression of BABY BOOM triggers a conversion from vegetative to embryonic growth. Plant Cell 14: 1737-1749.

Businge, E., Brackmann, K., Moritz, T. and Egertsdotter, U. 2012. Metabolite profiling reveals clear metabolic changes during somatic embryo development of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Tree Physiology 32: 232-244.

Businge, E., Bygdell, J., Wingsle, G., Moritz, T. and Egertsdotter, U. 2013 The effect of carbohydrates and osmoticum on storage reserve accumulation and germination of Norway spruce somatic embryos. Physiol. Plant. Article first published online: 25 MAR 2013 DOI: 10.1111/ppl.12039

Carman, J.G. 1990. Embryogenic cells in plant tissue cultures: occurrence and behavior. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol.  26: 746-753.

Chen, K., Wu, H.J., Chen, J.F., Cheng, X.F., Jing, X. and Wang, X.Y. 2012. Somatic embryogenesis and mass spectrometric identification of proteins related to somatic embryogenesis in Eruca sativa. Plant Biotechnol.Rep 6: 113-122.

Chugh, A. and Khurana, P. 2002. Gene expression during somatic embryogenesis: recent advances. Curr Sci 83: 715–730.

Correia, S., Vinhas, R., Manadas, B., Lourenco, A.S., Verissimo, P. and Canhoto, J.M. 2012. Comparative proteomic analysis of auxin-induced embryogenic and nonembryogenic tissues af the solanaceous treeCyphomandra betacea (Tamarillo). J. Proteome Res. 11(3): 1666-1675.

Das, D.K. and Rahman, A. 2013. Induction of somatic embryogenesis and long term maintenance of embryogenic lines of litchi. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 7(2): 625-634.

Dowlatabadi, R., A.M. Weljie, T.A. Thorpe, E.C. Yeung and H.J. Vogel. 2009. Metabolic foot printing study of white spruce somatic embryogenesis using NMR spectroscopy. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 47: 343–350.

Dudits, D., Gyorgyey, L. and Bako, L. 1995. Molecular biology of somatic embryogenesis. In: Thorpe, T.A. (ed.) In Vitro Embryogenesis in Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht - Boston - London. pp 267-308.

Dunwell, J.M., Gibbings, J.G., Mahmood, T. and Naqvi, S.M.S. 2008. Germin and germin-like proteins: Evolution, Structure, and Function. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 27:342–375.

Elhiti,M., Stasolla, C. and Wang, A. 2013. Molecular regulation of plant somatic embryogenesis. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.- Plant. DOI 10.1007/s11627-013-9547-3

Elhiti, M., Tahir, M., Gulden, R.H., Khamiss, K. and Stasolla, C. 2010. Modulation of embryo-forming capacity in culture through the expression of Brassica genes involved in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem. JExp Bot 61:4069–4085

Fehér, A. 2005. Why Somatic Plant Cells Start to form Embryos?. In: Mujib, A., Samaj, J. (eds.). Plant Cell Monographs (2). Somatic Embryogenesis. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp 85-101.

Fehér, A., Pasternak, T.P. and Dudits, D. 2003. Review of plant biotechnology and applied genetics. Transition of somatic plant cells to an embryogenic state. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 74: 201-228.

Fehér, A. 2008. The initiation phase of somatic embryogenesis: what we know and what we don’t.  Acta biol. Szeged 52: 53-56.

Franz, G., Hatzopoulos, P., Jones, T.J., Krauss, M. and Sung, Z.R. 1989. Molecular and genetic analysis of embryogenic gene, DCS from Daucus carota L. Molec. Gen. Genetic 218: 143-151.

Elviana, M., Rohani, E.R., Ismanizan, I. and Normah, M.N. 2011. Morphological and histological changes during the somatic embryogenesis of mangosteen. Biol Plant 55: 731–736.

Gaj, M.D. 2004. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis induction and plant regeneration with particular reference to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Plant Growth Regul 43: 27-47.

Gallois, J.L., Nora, F.R., Mizukami, Y. and Sablowski, R. 2004. WUSCHEL induces shoot stem cell activity and developmental plasticity in the root meristem. Genes Dev 18: 375–380.

Ge, X.X., Fan, G.E, Chai L.J. and Guo, W.W. 2010. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression analysis of a somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase gene (CitSERK1-like) in Valencia sweet orange. ActaPhysiol Plant 32: 1197-1207.

Gerdakaneh, M., Mozafari, A-A., Adel sioseh-mardae and Sarabi, B. 2011. Effects of different amino acids on somatic embryogenesis of strawberry (Fragariaananassa Duch.). Acta Physiol. Plant. 33(5): 1847-1852.

Györgyey, J., Gartner, A., Németh, K., Magyar, Z., Hirt, H., Heberle­Bors, E. and Dudits, D. 1991.  Alfalfa  heat shock  genes  are  differentially  expressed  during  somatic embryogenesis. Plant Mol Biol 16: 999-1007.

Hassan M.M., Taha R.A. (2012) Callogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars affected by carbohydrate sources. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(5), 231-242.

He, K., Gou, X., Yuan, T., Lin, H., Asami, T., Yoshida, S., Russell, S.D. and Li, J. 2007. BAK1 and BKK1 regulate brassinosteroid-dependent growth and brassinosteroid-independent cell-death pathways. Curr Biol 17: 1109–1115

Hecht, V., Vielle-Calzada, J.P., Hattog, M.V., Schmidt, E.D., Boutilier, K. and Grossniklaus, U., et al., 2001. The arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1 gene is expressed in developing ovules and embryos and enhances embryogenic competence in culture. Plant Physiol 127: 803-16.

Henry, R.J. 1998. Molecular and biochemical characterization of somaclonal variation. In: Jain, S.M., Brar, D.S. and Ahloowalia, B.S. (eds.) Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. pp 485-499.

Herrera, A.A., Gonzalez, A.K., Moo, R.C., Figueroa, F.R.Q., Vargas, V.M.L., Zapata, L.C.R., D’hondt, C.B., Solis, V.M.S. and Castano, E. 2008. Expression of WUSCHEL in Coffea canaphora causes ectopic morphogenesis and increase somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 94: 171-180.

Ito, Y., Takaya, K. and Kurata, N. 2005. Expression of SERK family receptor-like protein kinase genes in rice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1730: 253–258.

Jalil, M., Chee, W.W., Othman, R.Y. and Khalid, N. 2008. Morphological examination on somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminate cv. Mas (AA). Sci. Hort. 117: 335-340.

Jime ?nez, V.M. 2005. Involvement of plant hormones and plant growth regulators on in vitro somatic embryogenesis. Plant Growth Regul 47: 91–110.

Karami, O., Aghavaisi, B. and Pour, A.M. 2009. Molecular aspects of somatic-to-embryogenic transition in plants. J. Chem. Biol. 2:177-190.

Kevers, C., Gal, N.L., Monteiro, M., Dommes, J. and Gaspar, T. 2000. Somatic embryogenesis of Panax ginseng in liquid cultures: a role for polyamines and their metabolic pathways. Plant Growth Regul 31:209–214.

Kim, Y.S., Lim, S., Choi. Y.E. and Anbazghan, V.R. 2007. High frequency plantregeneration via somatic embryogenesis in Podophyllum peltatum L., an important source of anticancer drug. Current Science 92: 662-666.

Kulinska-Lukaszek K., Tobojka M., Adamiok A., Kurczynska E.U. 2012. Expression of the BBM gene during somatic embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biologia Plantarum, 56(2): 389-394.

Kulkarni, V.M. and Bapat, V.A. 2013. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension cultures of Rajeli (AAB), an endangered banana cultivar. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 22(1), 132-137

Lane, B.G. 2002. Oxalate, germins, and higher plant-pathogens. IUBMB Life 53: 67–75.

Lara-Chavez, A., Flinn, B.S. and Egertsdotter, U. 2011. Initiation of somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos of Oocarpa pine (Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schlectendal). Tree Physiology, 31(5): 539-554.

Lipavská, H. and H. Konrádová. 2004. Somatic embryogenesis in conifers: the role of carbohydrate metabolism. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 40: 23–30.

Lippert, D., Zhuang, J., Ralph, S., Ellis, D.E., Gilbert, M., Olafson, R.R, Ritland, K., Ellis, B., Douglas, C.J. and Bohlmann, J. 2005. Proteome analysis of early somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca. Proteomics 5: 461–73.

Liu, H.Y., Xiao, L.T., Lu, X.D., Hu, J.J., Wu, S., He, C.Z. and Deng, X.X. 2005. Changes in polyamine levels in Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia callus during somatic embryogenesis. J Plant Physiol Mol Biol 31(3): 275–280.

Lotan, T., Ohto, M., Yee, K.M., West, M.A.L., Lo, R., Kwong, R.W., Yamagishi, K., Fischer, R.L., Goldberg, R.B. and Harada, J.J. 1998. Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 is suf?cient to induce embryo development in vegetative cells. Cell 93: 1195–1205.

Mahendran, G. and Bai, V.N. 2012. Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from seed derived protocorms of Cymbidium bicolor LindlScientia Horticulturae, 135: 40-44.

Mala, J., Cvikrova, M., Machova, P., Martincova, O. 2009. Polyamines during somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.]). J For Sci 55: 75-80.

Mashayekhi, K., Sharifani, M., Shahsavand, M. and Kalati, H. 2008. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in absence of exogenous auxin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). International Journal of Plant Production 2(2): 163-166.

Marsoni, M., Bracale, M., Espen, L., Prinsi, B., Negri, A. and Vannini, C. 2008. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera. Plant Cell Rep. 27: 347-356.

Minocha, R., Minocha, S.C. and Long, S. 2004. Polyamines and their biosynthetic enzymes during somatic embryo development in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). In Vitro Cell Dev Plant 40: 572–580.

Misra, S. 1994. Conifer zygotic embryogenesives, somatic embryogenesis, and germination: biochemical and molecular advances. Seed Sci. Res. 4: 357-384.

Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol. Plant 15: 473-497.

Neutelings, G., Domon, J.M., Membré, N., Bernier, F., Meyer, Y., David, A. and David, H. 1998. Characterization of a germin-like protein gene expressed in somatic and zygotic embryo of pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet). Plant Molecular Biology 38(6): 1179-1190.

Nolan, K.E., Irwanto, R.R. and Rose, R.J. 2003. Auxin up-regulates MtSERK1 expression in both Medicago truncatula root-forming and embryogenic cultures. Plant Physiol 133: 218–230.

Nolan, K.E., Kurdyukov, S. and Rose, R.J. 2011. Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence. BMC Plant Biology 11: 44.

Nhut, D.T., Hanh, N.T.M., Tuan, P.Q., Nguyet, L.T.M., Tram, N.T.H., Chinh, N.C., Nguyen, N.H. and Vinh, D.N. 2006. Liquid culture as a positive condition to induce and enhance quality and quantity of somatic embryogenesis of Lilium longiforum. Scientia Horticulturae 110: 93-97.

Noah, A.M., Nicolas, N., Sunderhaus, S., Haase, C., Omokolo, D.N., Winkelmann, T. and Braun, H.P. 2013. Comparative proteomic analysis of early somatic and zygotic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L. Journal of Proteomics 78: 122-133.

Pan, Z., Guan, R., Zhu, S. and Deng, X. 2009. Proteomic ananlysis of somatic embryogenesis in Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Plant Cell Rep 28: 281-289.

Paul, A., Mitter, K. and Raychaudhuri, S.S. 2009. Effect of polyamines on in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Momordica charantia L. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 97: 303-311.

Perez-Nunez, M.T., Souza, R., Saenz, L., Chan, J.L., Zuniga-Aguilar, J.J. and Oropeza, C. 2009. Detection of a SERK-like gene in coconut and analysis of its expression during the formation of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos. Plant Cell Rep 28: 11-19.

Ptak, A., Tahchy, A., Skrzypek, E., Wójtowicz, T. and Laurain-Mattar, D. 2013. Influence of auxins on somatic embryogenesis and alkaloid accumulation in Leucojum aestivum callus. Central European Journal of Biology, 8(6): 591-599.

Quiroz-Figueroa, F.R., Rojas-Herrera, R., Galaz-Avalos, R.M. and Loyola-Vargas, V.M. 2006. Embryo production through somatic embryogenesis can be used to study cell differentiation in plants. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 86: 285–301.

Rai, M.K., Akhtar, N. and Jaiswal, V.S. 2007. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Psidium guajava L. cv. Banarasi local. Scientia Horticulturae 113: 129–133.

Rao, K.S., Chrungoo, N.K. and Anares, S. 1996. Characterization of somatic embryogeneesis in sandalwood (Santalum album). In vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 32: 123-128.

Raghavan, V. 1997. Molecular Embryology of Flowering Plants, Cambridge University Press, New York. pp 467–499.

Raghavan, V. 2000. Developmental Biology of Flowering Plants. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp 309–322.

Roberts, J.K. 2002. Proteomics and a future generation of plant molecular biologists. Plant Mol Biol 48: 143–54.

Robinson, A.R., Dauwe, R., Ukrainetz, N.K., Cullis, I.F., White, R. and Mansfield, S.D. 2009. Predicting the regenerative capacity of conifer somatic embryogenic cultures by metabolomics. Plant Biotechnol. J. 7: 952–963.

Rode, C., Gallien, S., Heintz, D., Van-Dorsselaer, A., Braun, H.P. and Winkelmann, T. 2011. Enolases: storage compounds in seeds? Evidence from a proteomic comparison of zygotic and somatic embryos of Cyclamenpersicum Mill. Plant Mol Biol 75: 305–19.

Rodríguez-Sahagún A., Acevedo-Hernández G., Rodríguez-Domínguez J., Rodríguez-Garay B., Cervantes-Martínez J., Castellanos-Hernández O. (2011) Effect of light quality and culture medium on somatic embryogenesis of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 104(2), 271-275.

Rohani, E.R., Ismanizan, I., and Normah, M.N. 2012. Somatic embryogenesis of mangosteen. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 110: 251–259.

Sahrawat, A.K. and Chand, S. 2001. Continuous somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from hypocotyl segments of Psoralea corylifolia Linn., an endangered and medicinally important Fabaceae plant. Current Science, 81(10): 1328-1331.

Sane, D., Aberlenc-Bertossi, F., Diatta, L.I.D., Gueye, B., Daher, A., Sagna, M., Duval, Y. and Borgel, A. 2012. Influence of growth regulators on callogenesis and somatic embryo development in Date Palm (Phoenixdactylifera L.) Sahelian Cultivars. The Scientific World Journal pp 8.

Schmidt, E.D., Guzzo, F., Toonen, M.A. and de Vries, S.C. 1997.leucine- rich repeat containing receptor-like kinase marks somatic plant cells competent to form embryos. Development 124: 2049–2062.

Schmidt, M.A., Tucker, D.M., Cahoon, E.B., Parrott, W.A. 2005. Towards normalization of soybean somatic embryo maturation. Plant Cell Reports, 24(7): 383-391.

Sharma, S.D. 2005. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos – An overview. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 4: 47-55.

Scherwinski-Pereira, J.E., da Guedes, R.S., Fermino Jr, P.C.P., Silva, T.L. and Costa, F.H.S. 2010. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in oil palm using the thin cell layer technique. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.—Plant 46: 378–385.

Singh, M. Jaiswal, U. and Jaiswal, V.S. 2004. In vitro regeneration and improvement in tropical fruit trees: An assessment. Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers pp 228-243.

Singla, B., Khurana, J.P. and Khurana, P. 2008. Characterization of three somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase genes from wheat, Triticum aestivum. Plant Cell Rep 27: 833-843.

Solís-Ramos, L.Y., Andrade-Torres, A., Sáenz Carbonell, L.A., Carlos M. Oropeza Salín, C.M.O. and de la Serna, E.C. 2012.. Somatic Embryogenesis in Recalcitrant Plants, Embryogenesis, Sato, K.I. (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0466-7, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/embryogenesis/somatic-embryogenesis-in-recalcitrant-plants

Stasolla, C., Kong, L., Yeung, E.C. and Thorpe, T.A. 2002. Maturation of somatic embryos in conifers: morphogenesis, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant 38: 93-105.

Stasolla, C., Belmonte, M.F., van Zyl, L., Craig, D.L., Liu, W., Yeung, E.C. and Sederoff, R.R. 2004. The effect of reduced glutathione on morphology and gene expression of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos. J. Exp Bot 55: 695-709.

Steiner, N., Santa-Catarina, C., Guerra, M., Cutri, L., Dornelas, M. and Floh, E. 2011. A gymnosperm homolog of somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase-1 (SERK1) is expressed during somatic embryogenesis.Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. pp 1-10

Steward, F.C., Mapes, M.O. and Smlth, J. 1958a. Growth and organized development of cultured cells. I. Growth and division of freely suspended cells. Am. J. Bot. 45: 693-703

Steward, F.C., Mapes, M.O. and Mears, K. 1958b. Growth and organized development of cultured cells. II. Organization in cultures grown from freely suspended cells. Am J Bot 45: 705–708.

Stone, S.L., Kwong, L.W., Yee, K.M., Pelletier, J., Lepiniec, L., Fischer, R.L., Goldberg, R.B., and Harada, J.J. 2001. LEAFY COTYLEDON2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor that induces embryo development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98: 11806–11811.

Sun, L., Wu, Y., Zou, H., Su, S., Li, S., Shan, X., Xi, J. and Yuan, Y. 2013. Comparative proteomic analysis of the H99 inbred maize (Zea mays L.) line in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus during somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult. 113: 103–119.

Swamynathan, B., Nadanakunjidam, S., Ramamourti, A., Sindhu, K. and Ramamoorthy, D. 2010. In-Vitro plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in Solanum melongena (Thengaithittu variety). Academic Journal of Plant Sciences 3(2): 64-70.

Szechy?ska-Hebda, M., Skrzypek, E., D?browska, G., W?dzony, M. and Lammeren, A. 2012 The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency.Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 34(2): 547-560.

Thakare, D., Tang, W., Hill, K. and Perry, S.E. 2008. The MADS-Domain transcriptional regulator AGAMOUS-LIKE15 promotes somatic embryo development in Arabidopsis and soybean. Plant Physiology 146: 1663-1672.

Thomas, C. and Jimenez, V.M. 2005. Mode of action of plant hormones and plant growth regulators during induction of somatic embryogenesis: Molecular aspects. In: Mujib, A. and Samaj, J. (eds.). Plant Cell Monogr.2, Somatic embryogenesis. Verlag: Springer. pp 157 – 175

Thomas, C., Meyer, D., Himber, C. and Steinmetz, A. 2004. Spatial expression of a sunflower SERK gene during induction of somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis. Plant Physiol Biochem 42: 35–42.

Tian, L. and Brown, D. 2000. Improvement of soybean somatic embryo development and maturation by abscisic acid treatment. Can. J. Plant Sci. 80: 271-276.

Tonietto, A., Sato, J.H., Teixeira, J.B., de Souza, E.M., Pedrosa, F.O., Franco, O.L. and Mehta, A. 2012. Proteomic analysis of developing somatic embryos of Coffea arabica. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep 30: 1393-1399.

Vahdati, K., Bayat, S., Ebrahimzadeh, H., Jaritehand Mirmasoumi. M. 2008. Effect of exogenous ABA on somatic embryo maturation and germination in Persian walnut (Juglans regia L). Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult.  93: 163-171.

Vahdati, K., Jariteh, M., Niknam, V., Mirmasouri, M. and Ebrahimzadeh, H. 2006. Somatic embryogenesis and embryo maturation in Persian walnut. Acta Hort. 705: 100-205.

Von Arnold, S., Sabala, I., Bozhkov, P., Dyachock, J. and Filonova, L. 2002 . Developmental pathways of somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tissue Org. Cult. 69: 233-240.

Varisai Mohamed, S., Wang, C.S., Thiruvengadam, M. and Jayabalan, N. 2004. In vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis through cell suspension cultures of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)Verdc.). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol - Plant 40: 284-289.

Wang, H.C., Chen, J.T. and Chang, W.C. 2006. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf, root and stem-derived callus cultures of Areca catechu. Biologia Plantarum 50(2): 279-282.

Williams, E.G. and Maheswaran, G. 1986. Somatic embryogenesis: factors in?uencing coordinated behaviour of cells as an embryogenic group. Ann Bot 57: 443–462.

Winkelmann, T., Heintz, D., van Dorsselaer, A., Serek, M. and Braun, H.P. 2006. Proteomic analyses of somatic and zygotic embryos of Cyclamen persicum Mill. Reveal new insights into seed and germination physiology. Planta 224: 508-519.

Wi?niewska, A., Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A., Zuzga, S., Tagashira, N., ?otocka, B., Malepszy, S. and Filipecki, M. 2013. Molecular characterization of SCARECROW (CsSCR) gene expressed during somatic embryo development and in root of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(5): 1483-1495.

Wu, X.B., Wang, J., Liu, J.H. and Deng, X.X. 2008. Involvement of polyamine biosynthesis in somatic embryogenesis of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) induced by glycerol. J Plant Physiol 166(1):52-62.

Yancheva, S.D. and Roichev, V. 2005. Carbohydrate source can influence the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in seedless grapes (Vitis vinivera L.). Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Eq. 2: 62-66.

Yang, X. and Zhang, X. 2010. Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in higher plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 29: 36-57.

Yang, J., Wu, S. and Li, C. 2013. High efficiency secondary somatic embryogenesis in Hovenia dulcis Thunb. through solid and liquid cultures. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013, Article ID 718754, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/718754

Yu, C., Chen, Z., Lu, L. and Lin, J. 2000. Somatic embryogenesis in plant regeneration of litchi protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspensions. Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult. 61: 51-58.

Zhang, S.G., Han, S.Y., Yang, W.H., Wei, H.l., Zhang, M., Qi, L.W. 2010. Changes in H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme gene expression during the somatic embryogenesis of Larix leptolepis. Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult. 100(1): 21-29.

Zhang, S.Z., Liu, X.G., Lin, Y.A., Xie, G.N., Fu, F.L., Liu, H.L., Wang, J., Gao, S.B., Lan, H., Rong, T.Z. 2011. Characterization of a ZmSERK gene and its relationship to somatic embryogenesis in a maize culture.Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult. 105: 29–37.

Zhang, J.W., Ma, H.Q., Chen, S., Ji, M., Perl, A., Kovacs, L. and Chen, S.W. 2009. Stress response proteins’ differential expression in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon—A proteomic approach. Plant Sci 177: 103–113.

Zhao, P., Wang, W. and Sun, M. 2011. Characterization and expression pattern analysis of DcNAC gene in somatic embryos of Dendrobium candidum Wall Ex Lindl. Plant Cell Tiss Org. Cult. 107: 151-159.

Zheng, Q., Zheng, Y. and Perry, S.E. 2013. AGAMOUS-Like15 Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis and Soybean in Part by the Control of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Response. Plant Physiology 161(4): 2113-2127.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1993. Somatic embryogenesis: a model for early development in higher plants. The Plant Cell 5: 1411-1423.

Zuo, J., Niu, Q.W., Frugis, G. and Chua, N.H. 2002. The WUSCHEL gene promotes vegetative-to embryonic transition in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 30: 349-359.

 

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 48(4) November 2019

Coverphoto

Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Thomson Reuters Master Journal List, Myjurnal, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to MyCite 2014 report, MABJ ranked 95 out of 142 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.