Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2017) 46(4): 15–21




MARLY, M.A.A.1, ZAINUDIN, R.1,2* and AMRAM, M.F.1

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology,

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia

2Centre for Foundation Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,

94300 Kota Samarahan Sarawak, Malaysia

*Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Accepted 31 November 2017, Published online 31 December 2017



The Genus Pulchrana in Sarawak comprises P. baramica, P. glandulosa, P. laterimaculata, P. picturata and P. signata. Previously these species were grouped under the genus Hylarana, subgenus Pulchrana, but recent DNA studies have upgraded the species into genus Pulchrana. DNA markers are known to be expensive and time consuming. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine unique sound characteristics for species identification and develop a dichotomous key based on advertisement calls. Based on Principal Component Analysis and Discriminant Factor Analysis, the variation of the advertisement calls of Sarawak Pulchrana was found to be able to discriminate the species within the genus. Call note, pulse duration, call energy, call frequency and call intensity are all useful characters in discriminating the Pulchrana species. These useful call characters were then developed as the dichotomous keys for species identification. It is recommended that larger samples and better recordings with low background noise are needed for more accurate and stronger species discrimination and identification via bioacoustics.

Key words: Frog, bioacoustics, note, dichotomous key, pulse duration, call frequency


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