Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

Malays. Appl. Biol. (2005) 34(1): 31-36

E-mail Print PDF


Malays. Appl. Biol. (2005) 34(1): 31-36





Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


The fruits from Solarium torvum (terung pipit) are widely used as traditional medication in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract and ethanol (EtOH) extract from the fruits of S. torvum were screened for their antimicrobial activities against 7 bacterial species and 7 fungi species using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts from S. torvum were only determined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using microbroth dilution technique. The most susceptible microorganism towards the effect of EtOAc extract from S. torvum was P. aeruginosa ATCC 27823 with inhibition zone of 12.20 mm ± 0.35 mm compared to 19.7 mm ± 0.13 mm of Gentamicin, while the most resistant bacteria S. epidermidis produced an inhibition zone of (7.40 mm ± 0.53 mm) compared to 20.7 mm ± 0.21 mm with Gentamicin. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml whereas the MBC values range from 5 mg/ml to >20 mg/ml. Our findings suggest that the fruits of S. torvum exhibit antibacterial activity with a bacteriostatic mechanism.


Buah daripada Solarium torvum (terung pipit) merupakan ubatan tradisional untuk rawatan tekanan darah tinggi. Dalam kajian ini, ekstrak etil asetat (EtOAc) dan etanol (EtOH) daripada buah S. torvum diuji untuk aktiviti antimikrob ke atas 7 spesies bakteria dan 7 spesies fungus menggunakan kaedah resapan cakera. Nilai kepekatan perencatan minima (MIC) dan nilai kepekatan bakterisidal minima (MBC) ekstrak daripada S. torvum hanya ditentukan ke atas Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 menggunakan teknik pencairan mikrokaldu. Mikroorganisma yang paling rentan terhadap kesan ekstrak EtOAc daripada S. torvum adalah P. aeruginosa ATCC 27823 dengan zon perencatan 12.20 mm ± 0.35 mm berbanding 19.7 mm ±0.13 mm dengan Gentamicin, manakala bakteria yang paling resistan S. epidermidis menghasilkan zon perencatan (7.40 mm ± 0.53 mm) berbanding 20.7 mm ± 0.21 mm dengan Gentamicin. Nilai MIC ekstrak adalah dalam julat di antara 2.5 mg/ml hingga 20 mg/ml manakala nilai MBC adalah di antara 5 mg/ml hingga >20 mg/ml. Kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa buah daripada S. torvum menunjukkan aktiviti antibakteria dengan mekanisme bakteriostatik.

Key words: Solanum torvum, antibacterial, MIC, MBC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tannin


Ajaiyeoba, E.G. 1999. Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Solarium macrocarpum and Solanum torvum leaves. Fitoterapia 70: 184-186.

Andrews, J.M. 2001. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Suppl SI: 48-57.

Arthan, D., Svasti, J., Kittakoop, P., Pittayakhachonwut, D., Tanticharoen, M. & Thebtaranonth, Y. 2002. Antiviral isoflavonoid sulfate and steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum. Phytochemistry 59: 459-463.

Basri, D.F. & Fan, S.H. 2005. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 37: 26-29.

Basri, D.F., Sharif, R., Morat, P. & Latip, J. 2005. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts from Garcinia atroviridis and Solanum torvum. Malaysian Journal of Science 24 : 233-238.

Chah, K.F., Muko, K.N. & Oboegbulem, S.I. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of Solanum torvum fruit. Fitoterapia 71: 187-189.

Cowan, M.M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 564-582.

Dayang, F.B., Jacinta, S., Chong, S.L. & Rohasmizah, I. 2004. Antimycotic activity of the extracts of Stichopus chloronotus Brandt in experimental dermatophytosis. Malaysian Journal of Health Sciences 2: 96-102.

Dayang, F.B. & Fan, S.H. 2004. In vitro antibacterial activity of the galls of Quercus infectoria. Tropical Biomedicine 21: 39-46.

Dopke, W., Nogueiras, C. & Hess, U. 1975. The steroid, alkaloid and sapogenin content of Solanum torvum. Pharmazie 30: 755.

Fui, L.H. 1992. Knowledge and use of forest product as traditional medicine: the case of the forest-dwelling communities. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Medicinal Products from Tropical Rain Forest. K. Shaari, A.A. Kadir and A.R.M. Ali (Eds.). Forest Research Institute of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, pp. 385-400.

Gilbert, P. & McBain, A.J. 2003. Potential impact of increased use of biocides in consumer products on prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 16: 189-208.

Gislene, G.F.N., Locatelli, J., Freitas, P.C. & Silva, G.L. 2000. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 31: 247-256.

Govindachari, T.R., Suresh, G., Gopalakrishnan, G., Banumathy, B. & Masilamani, S. 1998. Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil of Azadirachta indica. Phytoparasitica 26: 1-8.

Hagerman, A.E. 2002. Tannin Handbook, http://

Jones, G.A., McAllister, T.A., Muir, A.D. & Cheng, K.J. 1994. Effect on sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology 60: 1374-1378.

Khartini, A.W., Dayang Fredalina, B., Kaswandi, A., Hing, H.L., Oon. K.W. & Sit, N.W. 2003. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Holothuria sp. and B. marmorata vitiensis. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 8 : 49-53.

Levinson, W.E. & Jawetz, E. 1996. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 4th. Ed. Appleton and Lange Press, USA. pp. 5-7.

Lim, D., Sanschagrin, Passmore, L., Castro, L.D., Levesque, R.C. & Strynadka, N.C.J. 2001. Insights into the molecular basis for the carbenicillinase activity of PSE-4 H-lactamase from crystallographic and kinetic studies. Biochemistry 40: 395-402.

Mlackeen, M.M., Ali, A.M., Abdullah, M.A., Nasir, R.M., Mat, N.B., Razak, A.R. & Kawazu, K. 1997a. Antinematodal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against the Pine Wood nematode Bursaphelencus xylophilus. Pesticide Science 51:165-170.

Mlackeen, M.M., Ali, A.M., El-Sharkawy, S.H., Salleh, K.M., Lajis, N.H. & Kawazu, K. 1997b. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of some Malaysia traditional vegetables (ulam). International Journal of Pharmacognosy 35: 174-178.

Mahmood, U., Argawal, P.K. & Thakur, R.S. 1985. Torvonin-A, a spirostane saponin from Solanum torvum leaves. Phytochemistry 24: 2456.

Mythirayee, C., Krishnamurty, V. & Madhavakrishna, W. 1975. Polyphenols of Solanum torvum. Indian Academy of Science. Current Science 44: 461-463.

Norrby, S.R. 1995. Emerging antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria : return to the pre-antibiotic era? Hong Kong Medical Journal 1: 129-135.

Rahman, M.A., Rashid, M.A., Salam, M.A., Masud, M.A.T., Masum, A.S.M.H. & Hossain, M.M. 2002. Performance of some grafted eggplant genotypes on wild Solanum root stocks against root-knot nematode. Journal of Biological Science 2: 446-448.

Samy, R.P., Ignacimuthu, S. & Sen, A. 1998. Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 62: 173-181.

Scalbert, A. 1991. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30: 3875-3883.

Stange, R.R., Jr., Midland, S.L, Eckert, J.W. & Sims, J.J. 1993. An antifungal compound produced by grapefruit and Valencia orange after wounding of the peel. Journal of Natural Products 56: 1627-1629.

Yahara, S., Yamashita, T., Nozawa, N. & Nohara, T. 1996. Steroidal glycosides from Solanum torvum. Phytochemistry 43: 1069-1074.



Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 50(1) June 2021


Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to Scopus CiteScore 2020, MABJ ranks 165 out of 203 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.

Scopus Citescore