Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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JUhrp. Appl. Biol. (June 2004) 33(1): 1-6


LIM, Y.A.L.1* and AHMAD, R.A.2

'Department of Parasitology,

Faculty of Medicine,

University of Malaya,

50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


2School of Environmental Science and Natural Resources,

Faculty of Science and Technology,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor,



A study to evaluate household water from households which had positive cases of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, revealed it 10% (2 out of 20 households) were using water contaminated with Giardia cysts. In one of the households, the npled water was taken from a tap which sourced its water from the river and it had a concentration of 0.4 cysts/L aod was positive with faecal coliform (57 CFU/lOOmL). In the second household, water was sampled from a buckel container used to store water supplied by the Water Supply Department (JBA). This sample had a concentration of 2 cysts/L and was also faecally contaminated with 3 faecal coliform CFU/lOOmL. No Cryptosporidium oocyst was detected ir. these samples. Nine other households were using faecally contaminated water (range = 4 - 1100 faecal coliform CFU/lOOmL), however Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were not detected in these water samples. Occurrence of Giardia cysts in the household water was likely due to sourcing of river water already contaminated with Giardia cysts and post-treatment contamination by household members or even house animals such as rats. Based on these evidences, faecal contamination in household water could be one probable route of Giardia cysts transmission in this community and therefore, it is not safe to drink unboiled water in this community.


Satu kajian untuk menilai air kegunaan dalam rumah daripada isirumah yang mempunyai kes positif untuk giardiasis dan kriptosporidiosis, mendapati bahawa 10% (2 daripada 20 isirumah) menggunakan air yang dicemari dengan sista Giardia. Dalam satu isirumah, air yang disampel diperolehi daripada sebatang paip yang mendapat bekalan airnya daripada sungai dan ia mempunyai kepekatan sebanyak 0.4 sista/L. Ujian koliform tinja yang dilakukan ke atas sampel air ini mengesahkan bahawa ia tercemar dengan tinja [57 CFU/lOOmL (koloni terbentuk bagi setiap 100 mL)]. Dalam isirumah kedua pula, air telah disampel daripada satu bekas takungan air di mana airnya dibekalkan oleh Jabatan Bekalan Air (JBA). Sampel air itu mempunyai kepekatan 2 sista/L dan juga tercemar dengan tinja (3 CFU koliform tinja/lOOmL). Kedua-dua sampel tidak mengandungi oosista Cryptosporidium. Sembilan isirumah yang lain pula, menggunakan air yang tercemar dengan tinja (julat = 4 - 1100 CFU koliform tinja/lOOmL). Walau bagaimanapun, kehadiran (oo)sista Giardia dan Cryptosporidium ndak dapat dikesan dalam kesemua sample tersebut. Kehadiran sista Giardia dalam air kegunaan dalam rumah mungkin disebabkan penggunaan air sungai yang telahpun tercemar dengan sista Giardia. Selain itu, kemungkinan kedua adalah disebabkan berlakunya pencemaran pasca-rawatan oleh ahli-ahli isirumah atau haiwan dalam rumah seperti tikus. Berdasarkan bukti yang diperolehi, pencemaran air dengan tinja manusia atau najis haiwan mungkin merupakan satu saluran transmisi untuk sista Giardia dalam komuniti ini. Oleh demikian, adalah tidak selamat untuk minum air yang tidak dimasak dalam komuniti ini.

Key words: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, waterborne, household water


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