Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size


E-mail Print PDF

Wjiaw. Appl. Biol. (June 2004) 33(1): 61-68





Natural Products Laboratory

Department of Zoology

D.D.U. Gorakhpur University,

Gorakhpur-273 009 (U.P.), INDIA

E- mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


The effects of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of extracts from stem bark of Thevetia peruviana and Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) on the nervous tissue of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea acuminata, was studied. Sub-lethal doses of aqueous and serially purified stem bark extracts of both the plants significantly altered the levels of total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), activity of enzyme protease, acid (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALCP) in the nervous tissue of the snail in a time and dose dependent manner. The aqueous and serially purified stem bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana and Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) showed potent molluscicidal activity.


Kesan dos sub-maut (40% dan 80% LC50) ekstrak daripada tumbuhan Thevetia peruviana dan Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) ke atas tisu saraf siput air tawar, Lymnaea acuminat, telah dikaji. Dos sub-maut yang digunakan didapati telah mengubah aras protin, asid amino bebas, asid nukleik (DNA & RNA), aktiviti enzim protease, asid (ACP) dan alkali (ALCP) fosfatase dalam tisu saraf daripada segi masa dan dos. Ekstrak daripada tumbuhan Thevetia peruviana dan Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) didapati mempunyai kesan sebagai moluskisid.

Key words: Lymnaea acuminata, Apocynaceae, metabolism, enzyme activity


Alard, P., Geerts, S. and Triest, E.T.L. 1991. Toxicite D' Amb-rosia Maritima L. Plants molluscicides, sur less Organisms Aquatiques Non-cibles. Toxicon 29: 745-750.

Anderson, M.A. and Szcypinski, A.J. 1947. Method of Enzymatic Analysis, Bergmeyer,

U.H., (Ed.) 1967. Academic Press, Journal of Clinical, 17: 571. APHA. 1998. Standard method for the examination of water and waste water. 16ed. APHA, Washington.

Banerji, A. and Banerji, J. 1977. Isolation of Pseudo-akuammigine from the Leaves of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 15(B): 390-391.

Bergmeyer, U.H. 1967. "Methods of Enzymatic Analysis". Academic Press, New York, 1129p.

Bradbury, S.P., Symonic, D.M., Coats, J.R. and Atchison, G.J. 1987. Toxicology of fenvalerate and its constituents isomers to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelos) and blue gill (Leponis macrochinus). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 38: 727-735.

Hostettmann, K. and Lea, P.J. 1987. Biologically Active Natural Products, Oxford Science Publications Oxford.

Jain, M.K. 1965. Chemical examination of Randiaulignosa. Current Science, 34: 505.

Lowry, H.W., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 265-275.

Marston, A. and Hostettmann, K. 1985. Plant mollusicicde. Phytochemistry, 24: 639-652.

Mian, L.S. and Mulla, M.S. 1992. Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on non-target invertebrates in aquatic ecosystem. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 9(2): 73-98.

Moore, S. and Stein, W.H. 1954. A modified ninhydrine reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 211: 907-913.

Moorthy, K.S., Kashi Reddy, B., Swamy, K.S. and Chethy, C.S. 1984. Changes in respiration and ionic content in the tissues of fresh water mussel exposed to methyl-parathion toxicity. Toxicological Letter, 21: 287-291.

Natarajan, G.M. 1985. Inhibition of branchial enzymes in snakehead fish (Channa striatus) by oxy demetom-methyl. Pesticide Bio¬chemistry Physiology, 23: 41-46.

Nordenskjold, M., Soderhall, J. and Moldeus, P. 1979. Studies on DNA trand break induced in human fibroblast by chemical mutagens and carcinogens. Mutational Research, 63: 393-400.

Pilo, B., Asnani, M.V. and Shah, R.V. 1972. Studies on wound healing and repair in pigeon liver: II. Histochemical studies on acid and alkaline phosphatase during the process. Journal of Animal Morphology Physiology, 19: 205-212.

Redinger, R.F. 1976. Organochlorine residues in adults of six South - Western bat species. Journal of Wild Life Management, 40: 677-680.

Schneider, W.C. 1957. Determination of nucleic acids in tissue by pantose analysis. In: Enzymology (S.P. Calowick and N.O. Kaplon. Eds.) Academic press, New York, pp., 680.

Seshagiri Rao, K., Srinivas Moorthy Kashi Redd> B, Swamy, K.S. and Chethy, C.S. 1987. Effect of benthiocarb on protein metabolism oi teleost, Sarotherodon mossambica. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 29: 440-450.

Singh, A. and Singh, O.K. 1993. Allium sativum (garlic), a potent new molluscicidal. Biological Agricultural and Horticulture, 9: 121-124.

Singh, A., Singh, O.K., Misra, T.N. and Agarwal, R.A. 1996. Molluscicides of plant origin. Biological Agricultural and Horticulture, 13: 205-252.

Singh, N.N., Das, V.K. and Singh, S. 1996. Effect of aldrine on carbohydrate, protein and ionic metabolism of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Bulletin o] Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57: 204-210.

Singh, O. and Agarwal, R.A. 1981. Toxicity of certain pesticides to two economic species of snails in Northern India. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74: 568-571.

Singh, R. and Agarwal, R.A. 1983. Chemosterilization and its reversal in the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Acta. Pharmacological Toxicological, 52: 112-120.

Singh, S.K. 2000. Studies on molluscicidal properties of some local plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh against harmful snails. Ph.D. thesis, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur (U.P.), India.

Singh, S.K., Yadav, R.P. and Singh, A. 2000. Molluscicidal activity of Thevetia peruviana, a common medicinal plant of India. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 22/4A & 23/1A: 113-116.

Singh, S.K., Yadav, R.P., Singh, D. and Singh, A. 2004. Toxic effect of two common Euphorbiales latices on the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 15: 87-93.

Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. 1973. Introduction to Biostatistics. MN Freeman, San Francisco, pp., 368.

Spices, J.R. 1957. Colorimetric procedures for amino acids. In: Methods of Enzymology (S.P. Calowick and N.O. Kaplon. Eds.). Academic press, New York pp., 468.

Sumner, A.T. 1965. The cytology and histology of the digestive gland cells of Helix. Q.J. microsc. Science, 106: 173-192.

Susan, T., Anita Veeraiah, K. and Tilak, K.S. 1999. A study on the bioaccumulation of fenvalerate a synthetic pyrethroid, in the whole body tissue of Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) by gas-liquid chromatography. Pollution Research, 18(1): 57-59.


Main Menu