Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (June 2002) 31(1): 37-48

 

MORPHOLOGICAL AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS,

AND SOMATIC INCOMPATIBILITY OF GANODERMA

FROM INFECTED OIL PALM AND COCONUT STUMPS

LATIFFAH, Z.,i ABDULLAH, F.,2 TAN, S.G.,2 HARIKRISHNA, K.i and HO, Y.W.i*

1 Institute of Blosclence,

^Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor.

ABSTRACT

The morphological characteristics of Ganoderma basidiomata collected from infected oil palm and coconut stumps from different estates in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah were generally similar, although some variations existed within the two groups of Ganoderma. Based on Steyaert's classification of Ganoderma (1967, 1975), the basidioma characteristics of Ganoderma from infected oil palm and coconut stumps fall within the description of G. boninense. Growth characteristics of the oil palm and coconut Ganoderma isolates on different media and at different temperatures were also similar. Mycelial growth of all the isolates was good on media such as oat meal agar, malt agar and lima bean agar but poor on Czapek agar. All the isolates could also utilise pectin for growth. The optimal temperatures for growth of most of the isolates were between 28°C to 30°C. Yeast extract sucrose medium could not be used to differentiate between the two groups of Ganoderma as the isolates did not produce any pigment on the medium. Antagonistic reactions between all the Ganoderma isolates when paired showed that there was somatic incompatibility among the isolates. This indicated that all the isolates, whether from infected oil palm or coconut stumps, from the same or different estates, were genotypically distinct individuals and not clones of single genotypes. The similar morphological and growth characteristics of the Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm and coconut stumps suggested that the two groups of Ganoderma probably belonged to the same species, tentatively identified as G. boninense.

ABSTRAK

Ciri-ciri basidioma Ganoderma daripada pokok kelapa sawit yang dijangkiti and tunggul kelapa yang diperolehi daripada beberapa buah estet di Semenanjung Malaysia dan Sabah, pada amnya adalah sama walaupun terdapat variasi pada kedua-dua kumpulan Ganoderma tersebut. Berdasarkan sistem klasifikasi Steyaert (1967, 1975), didapati Ganoderma daripada pokok kelapa sawit yang dijangkiti dan tunggul kelapa adalah G. boninense. Ciri-ciri pertumbuhan pada media dan suhu yang berlainan juga didapati sama. Pertumbuhan miselia adalah baik pada media OMA, MA dan LBA tetapi kurang baik pada media Czapek. Kesemua isolat boleh menggunakan pektin untuk pertumbuhan. Suhu optimum untuk pertumbuhan bagi kebanyakan isolat adalah di antara 28°C-30°C. Medium ekstrak sukrosa tidak dapat membezakan antara isolat Ganoderma daripada pokok kelapa sawit yang dijangkiti dan tunggul kelapa kerana isolat-isolat tersebut tidak menghasilkan sebarang pigmen. Ujian keserasian antara isolat-isolat Ganoderma menunjukkan ketidakserasian somatik berlaku pada kesemua isolat daripada pokok kelapa sawit yang dijangkiti dan tunggul kelapa, sama ada yang diperolehi daripada estet yang sama mahupun daripada estet yang berlainan. Ujian ini menunjukkan isolat-isolat Ganoderma daripada kedua-dua perumah tersebut terdiri daripada individu-individu yang berlainan genotip dan bukannya klon daripada satu genotip. Daripada ciri-ciri morfologi dan pertumbuhan isolat-isolat Ganoderma yang diperolehi daripada pokok kelapa sawit dan tunggul kelapa menunjukkan terdapat persamaan pada kedua-dua kumpulan Ganoderma tersebut dan ini menunjukkan ia daripada satu spesies yang sama, secara tentatifnya dikenalpasti sebagai G. boninense.

Key words: Ganoderma, oil palm, coconut, morphology, growth and somatic incompatibility.

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