Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (June 2002) 31(1): 49-58



!* School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor.

2 Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

3 Universiti Malaysia Sabah, KM 19, Tuaran Road, Locked Bag 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity within and between major seed sources of Calamus manan using isozyme analysis. 48 mature plants (21 female and 27 male plants) of C. manan from 3 planted populations viz. Sg. Yu, Pahang; Lanchang, Pahang; Bukit Lagong, Selangor and 1 natural population, Serting, Negeri Sembilan in Peninsular Malaysia were analysed using 14 loci representing 10 enzyme systems. Genetic diversity of about 980 seedlings of C.manan from Bukit Lagong, Sg. Yu, and Serting were also determined using 11 loci representing 9 enzyme systems. The mean observed (H0) and expected (He) heterozygosities in mature plants were 0.075 and 0.060 respectively indicating low genetic diversity for selection and improvement. The seedlings of C. manan assayed were more genetically depauperate (Bukit Lagong: H0 = 0.019, He = 0.030; Sg. Yu: H0 = 0.004 He = 0.005; Serting: H0 = 0.027, He = 0.043) than the mature plants indicating most probably inbreeding. The mean no. of alleles ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 in mature plants and from 1.2 to 1.3 in seedlings. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 6.7 - 20.0% in mature plants. In seedlings P varied from 0 - 18.2%. In general, low genetic diversity was detected in C.manan both in mature plants as well as in seedlings, implying extensive genetic erosion in plantations. Efforts should be made to source seeds from wild populations of C. manan in Southeast Asia to realise genetic improvement and sustainable productivity of plantations.


Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kepelbagaian genetik di dalam dan di antara punca biji benih utama Calamus manan menggunakan analisis isozim. 48 pokok matang (21 betina dan 27 jantan) C. manan dari 3 populasi yang ditanam iaitu Sg. Yu, Pahang; Lanchang, Pahang; Bukit Lagong, Selangor dan 1 populasi semulajadi, Serting, Negeri Sembilan di Semenanjung Malaysia dianalisis dengan 14 lokus yang mewakili 10 sistem enzim. Kepelbagaian genetik sebanyak 980 anak pokok C. manan dari Bukit Lagong, Sg. Yu dan Serting juga ditentukan dengan 11 lokus yang mewakili 9 sistem enzim. Purata heterozigositi yang dicerap (H0) dan dijangka (He) bagi pokok matang adalah 0.075 dan 0.060 masing-masing. Ini menunjukkan kepelbagaian genetik yang rendah bagi pemilihan dan pembaikan. Anak pokok C. manan yang dikaji mempunyai kepelbagaian genetik yang lebih rendah (Bukit Lagong: H0 = 0.019, He = 0.030; Sg. Yu: H0 = 0.004 He = 0.005; Serting: H0 = 0.027, Hc = 0.043) daripada pokok matang. Ini mungkin menunjukkan berlakunya biakbaka dalam. Purata bilangan alel berjulat dari 1.1 hingga 1.4 dalam pokok matang dan dari 1.2 hingga 1.3 dalam anak pokok. Peratus lokus polimorfik (P) adalah 6.7 - 20.0% dalam pokok matang. Dalam anak pokok P adalah 0 - 18.2%. Secara umum, kepelbagaian genetik yang rendah dikesan dalam C. manan; samada pokok matang atau anak pokok mengimplikasikan hakisan genetik yang menyeluruh dalam ladang berkenaan. Usaha untuk mendapatkarj biji benih dari populasi semulajadi C. manan di Asia Tenggara perlu dijalankan supaya pembaikan genetik dan produktiviti ladang C. manan yang berkekalan tercapai.

Key words: genetic diversity, rattans, seed source evaluation, isozyme markers


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