Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2009) 38(2): 23–28



Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
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Grammatophyllum seeds are minute and lack endosperm. As their other orchid’s counterpart, the seeds are dependent onmychorrhizal fungi for seed germination in nature. The abilities to uptake nutrients from substrate were assisted by preferable fungal symbionts. Seed of Grammatophyllum stapeliiflorum were used to determine the specificity of its fungus relationship using fungal isolated from roots of G. speciosum, G. stapeliiflorum and G. scriptum. A total of 31 isolates of different species of fungus was isolated from the host plants. All isolates were inoculated on G. stapeliiflorum seed on Oat Meal Agar (OMA) for symbiotic germination test. The result obtained from the test demonstrated that seed germination rates were best when co-cultured with Curvularia sp. isolated from G. speciosum; an increment in 40.1% when compared to the seeds’ original size (width 0.127mm). The seed also can germinate in variable degrees when inoculated with fungus isolated from different species. The germination experiments showed that G. stapeliiflorum is a generalist in its association with fungal symbionts.


Biji benih Grammatophyllum adalah halus dan kekurangan kandungan endosperma. Sepertimana spesies orkid lain, bijibenihnya bergantung pada aktiviti kulat mikoriza untuk bercambah secara semula jadi. Kebolehan untuk memindahkan nutrient daripada substrat dibantu oleh simbiosis kulat tertentu. Benih G. stapeliiflorum telah digunakan untuk menentukan pengkhususan hubungan dengan kulatnya menggunakan kulat yang dipencilkan daripada pokok hos berlainan spesies.Sejumlah 31 isolat kulat telah dipencilkan daripada pokok hos. Kesemua isolat telah diinokulasi pada benih G. stapeliiflorumdi atas OMA untuk ujian percambahan. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan kadar percambahan benih setelah dikultur bersama kulat Curvularia yang dipencilkan daripada akar G. speciosum adalah yang tertinggi (40.1%) apabila dibandingkan dengan saiz asalnya (0.127mm). Benih G. stapeliiflorum juga menunjukkan kadar percambahan yang berbeza apabila diinokulasi dengan kulat dari tumbuhan hos spesies berbeza. Hasil eksperimen juga menunjukkan bahawa G. stapeliiflorum adalah spesies orkid yang mempunyai hubungan simbiosis dengan kumpulan kulat yang luas apabila ia turut menunjukkan percambahan positif apabila dikultur bersama isolat kulat daripada tumbuhan hos berbeza spesies.

Key words: epiphytic orchid, fungal specificity, seed viability.


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