Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

29-1&2-11

E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (December 2000) 29(1 &2): 79-93

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PHOTOPERIOD ON DEVELOPMENT, FECUNDITY, PROGENY SEX RATIO AND LIFE-TABLE OF AN APHID PARASITOID BINODOXYS INDICUS

SINGH, R.,* PANDEY, S. and SINGH, A.

Aphid-Biocontrol Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur -273 009, U.P., India
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

ABSTRACT

Exposure to different temperatures (7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, or 37°C) during the entire life-span of female Binodoxys indicus (Subba Rao and Sharma) (Hym.: Braconidae) variously affected its pupal and adult survival, developmental rate, fecundity rates, progeny sex ratio and parameters of age-specific life-table. The parasitoid develops much faster at 32°C than 12°C. Lower threshold temperature for the development (tL) was 2.84°C and predicted time-to-adult 330.2 D° days. The female did not produce any progeny at 7°C. Maximum pupal mortality (67.9%) occurred at 37°C. The adult survival decreased with increase of temperature from 20.1 days at 12°C to 1.4 days at 37°C. The female produced 234.4 + 18.7 SD progeny at 22°C of which 161.2 ± 17.6 SD were females and these numbers decreased both below and above this temperature. All life-table parameters were temperature dependent; intrinsic rates of natural increase (rj were 0.3139, 0.3265 and 0.2936 at 22, 27 and 32°C, respectively. The progeny sex ratio was female-biased below 27°C while no female birth was yielded at 37°C. Experiments related with cold storage of mummies demonstrated that the parasitoid inside it can be stored at least for 4 weeks with about 60% adult eclosion and female-biased sex ratio. Variations in photoperiod only significantly influence the progeny sex ratio; shorter photoperiod (less than 12 h) increases the production of male progenies. Since little variation on most of the required attributes of B. indicus was noticed within the range of 17°C-27°C, it appears that the parasitoid is adapted to a wide range of temperatures. Based on developmental periods, lower temperature threshold, pupal survival, adult longevity, fecundity rates, progeny sex ratio and parameters of age-specific life-table, we suggest that the parasitoid be reared in laboratory at 22 °C and be released in fields in the cooler months (from mid December to mid March) in north India.


ABSTRAK

Pendedahan kepada suhu yang berlainan (7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32°C) pada seluruh jangka hidup betina Binodoxys indicus (Subba Rao dan Sharma) (Hym.: Braconidae) mempengaruhi kadar kemandirian pupa dan dewasa, kadar perkembangan, kadar fekunditi, nisbah seks progeni dan parameter jadual hidup berdasarkan umur. Parasitoid tersebut berkembang dengan kadar yang lebih tinggi pada 32°C berbanding dengan 12°C. Ambang suhu terendah untuk perkembangan (tL) ialah 2.84°C and masa yang dijangka untuk mencapai peringkat dewasa ialah 330.2 D° days. Tiada progeni dihasilkan pada suhu 7°C. Kemortalan pupa yang paling tinggi (67.9%) berlaku pada suhu 37°C. Kemandirian dewasa berkurangan dengan peningkatan suhu, iaitu dari 20.1 hari pada 12°C ke 1.4 hari pada 37°C. Parasitoid betina menghasilkan 234.4 + 18.7 SD progeni pada 22°C. Daripada jumlah ini 161.2 ± 17.6 SD adalah betina, dan jumlah ini berkurangan pada suhu yang lebih tinggi dan lebih rendah daripada suhu ini. Kesemua parameter jadual hidup bergantung kepada suhu; kadar peningkatan semulajadi intrinsik ialah 0.3139, 0.3265 dan 0.2936 pada 22, 27 and 32°C, masing-masing. Nisbah seks progeni lebih memihak kepada betina pada suhu lebih rendah daripada 27 °C sementara tiada parasitoid dihasilkan pada suhu 37°C. Eksperimen berkaitan dengan simpanan mayat dalam bilik sejuk telah dapati bahawa parasitoid di dalamnya boleh disimpan untuk sekurang-sekurangnya 4 minggu dengan lebih kurang 60% eklosion dewasa dan nisbah seks memihak kepada betina. Variasi pada fotokala hanya mempengaruhi nisbah seks progeni secara signifikan; fotokala yang lebih pendek (kurang dari 12 jam) meningkatkan penghasilan progeni jantan. Oleh kerana hanya perubahan yang kecil diperhatikan pada kebanyakan ciri-ciri B. indicus pada julat suhu 17°C - 27°C, boleh dikatakan parasitoid ini mempunyai adaptasi kepada julat suhu yang besar. Berdasarkan kepada jangkamasa perkembangan, ambang suhu yang

Key words :

REFERRENCES

Agarwala, B.K. 1988. Host-association and distribution of Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, a potential bio-control agent of pest aphids (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). In : Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera Research, Gupta, V.K. (ed.), E. J. Brill, Leiden, New York, pp 399-409.

Archer, T. L., Murray, C. L., Eikenbary, R. D., Starks, K. J. and Morrison, R. D. 1973. Cold storage of Lysiphlebus testaceipes mummies. Environmental Entomology 2: 1104-1108.

Bernal, J. and Gonzalez, D. 1993a. Experimental assessment of a degree-day model for predicting the development of parasites in the field. Journal of Aoolied Entomolosv. 116: 459-466.

Bernal, J. and Gonzalez, D. 1993b. Temperature requirements of four parasites of the Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 69: 173-182.

Bhatt, N. and Singh, R. 1989. Bionomics of an aphidiid parasitoid Trioxys indicus 30. Effect of host plants on reproductive and developmental factors. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 6: 149-157.

Bhatt, N. and Singh, R. 1991a. Bionomics of an aphidiid parasitoid Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma 32. Effect of food plants on the functional response, area of discovery and sex ratio of Fl offspring at varying densities of its host, Aphis gossypii Glover. Journal of Applied Entomology, 111: 263-269.

Bhatt, N. and Singh, R. 1991b. Bionomics of an aphidiid parasitoid Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma 33. Impact of food plants on the behaviour and sex allocation by the female parasitoid at her varying densities. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 7: 247-259.

Bhatt, N. and Singh, R. 1991c. Bionomics of an aphidiid parasitoid Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma 35. Influence of food plants on life-table statistics of the parasitoid through its host Aphis gossypii Glover. Insect Science and its Application, 12: 385-389.

Birch, L.C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. Animal Ecology, 17: 15-26.

Biswas, S. and Singh, R. 1995. Effect of temperature on the life-table of an aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus delhiensis (Subba Rao and Sharma) in relation to food plant cultivars and its bearing on biocontrol of corn aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). Journal oj Applied Zoology Research, 6: 121-126.

Biswas, S. & Singh, R. 1998. Interaction between host plant resistance and the biocontrol of a cereal aphid : A laboratory study. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 16, 25-36.

Blackmann, R.L. and Spence, J.M. 1994. The effect of temperature on aphid morphology, using a multivariate approach. European Journal of Entomology, 91: 7-22

Campbell, A., Frazer, B.D., Gilbert, N. Gutierrez, A. P. and Mackauer, M. 1974. Temperature requirements of some aphids and theii parasites. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11: 431-438.

Castineiras, A., Baranowski, R.M. and Glenn, H. 1996. Temperature response of two strains o1 Ceranisus menes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thrioidae). Florida Entomologist, 79: 13-20.

Church, N. S. 1960a. Heat loss and the body temperature of flying insects. I. Heat loss by evaporating of water from the body. Journal of Experimental Biology, 37: 171-185.

Church, N. S. 1960b. Heat loss and the body temperature of flying insects. II. Heat conduction within the body and its loss by radiation and convection. Journal of Experimental Biology, 37: 186-212.

Cohen, M.B. and Mackauer, M. 1987. Intrinsic rate of increase and temperature coefficients of the aphid parasite Ephedms californicus Baker. Candian Entomologists, 119: 231-237.

Danilevskii, A.S. 1965. Photoperiodism and Seasonal Development of Insects. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.

Deng, Y.X. and Tsai, J.H. 1998. Development of Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae) at five temperatures. Florida Entomologist, 81: 415-421.

Flint, M.L. 1980. Climate ecotypes in Trioxys complanatus, a parasite of the spotted alfalfa aphid, 1980. Environmental Entomology, 9: 501-507.

Force, D.C. and Messenger, P.S. 1964a. Fecundity, reproductive rates and innate capacity of increase of three parasites of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton). Ecology, 45: 706-715.

Force, D.C. and Messenger, P.S. 1964b. Duration of development, generation time and longevity of three hymenopterous parasites of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) reared at various constant temperatures. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 57: 405-413.

Giri, M.K., Pass, B.C. and Yeargan, K.V. 1983. The effect of temperature on the rate of development of Aphidius matricariae Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Transaction of Kentucky Academy of Sciences, 44: 145-153.

Giri, M.K., Pass, B.C., Yeargan, K.V. and Parr, J.C. 1982. Behaviour, net reproduction, longevity and mummy stage survival of Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Entomophaga, 27: 147-153.

Grasswitz, T.R. and Paine, T.D. 1992. Kairomonal effect of an aphid cornicle secretion on Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). Journal of Insect behaviour, 5: 447-457.

Guenaoui, Y. 1991. Role of temperature on the host suitability of Aphis gossypii Glover (Horn.: Aphididae) for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck Hym.: Aphididae). Redia, 74: 163-165.

Hafez, M. 1961. Seasonal fluctuation of population density of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brasicae (L.) in the Netherlands and the role of its parasite Aphidius (Diaeretiella) rapae (Curtis). Tijdschrift Planteziekten, 67: 445-548.

Hayakawa, D.L., Grafius, E. and Stehr, F.W. 1990. Effect of temperature on longevity, reproduction and development of the asparagus aphid (Homoptera : Aphididae) and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). Environmental Entomology, 19: 890-897.

Hoelscher, C.E. and Vinson, S.B. 1971. The sex ratio of a hymenopterous parasitoid, Campoletis perdistinctus, as affected by photoperiod, mating and temperature. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 64:1373-1376.

Hofsvang, T. and Hagvar, E.B. 1975a. Fecundity and oviposition period of Aphidius platensis Brethes (Hymenoptera:Aphidiidae) parasitising Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) on paprika. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 22: 113-116.

Hofsvang, T. and Hagvar, E.B. 1975b. Developmental rate, longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of Ephedms cerasicola Stary (Hym., Aphidiidae) parasitising Myzus persicae Sulzer (Horn., Aphididae) on paprika. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 22: 15-22.

Hofsvang, T. and Hagvar, E.B. 1977. Cold storage tolerance and supercooling points of mummies of Ephedrus cerasicola Stary and Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 24: 1-6.

Mackauer, M. and Chow, F.J. 1986. Parasites and parasite impact on aphid populations. In : Plant Virus Epidemics: Monitoring, Modelling and Predicting Outbreaks, Academic Press, Australia, pp. 95-118.

Mani, M. and Krishnamoorthy, A. 1992. Influence of constant temperatures on the development rate, progeny production, sex ratio and adult longevity of the grape mealybug parasitoid, Anagyrus dactylopii (How.) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Insect Science & its Application, 13: 697-703.

Messenger, P.S. 1964. Use of life-tables in a bioclimatic study of an experimental aphid-braconid wasp host-parasite system. Ecology, 45: 119-131.

Messenger, P. S. 1968. Bioclimatic studies of the aphid parasite Praon exsoletum. 1. Effect of temperature on the functional response of the females to varying host densities. Canadian Entomologists, 100: 728-741.

Messenger, P.S. 1969. Bioclimatic studies of the aphid parasite Praon exsoletum. 2. Thermal limits to development and effects of temperature on rate of development and occurrence of diapause. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62: 1026-1031.

Messenger, P.S. 1970. Bioclimatic inputs to biological control and pest management programmes. In Concepts of Pest Management, Rabb, R.L. and & Guthrie, F.E. (eds.), North Carolina State University, Railegh, pp. 84-99.

Messina, F.J. 1993. Effect of initial colony size on the per capita growth rate and alate production of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Kanas Entomological Society, 66: 365-371.

Mishra, S. and Singh, R. 1990. Life-time performance characteristics of an aphidiid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus delhiensis (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). Entomologia Generalis, 15: 173-179.

Mishra,S. and Singh.R. 1998. Thermal tolerance of the mummies of Lysiphlebus delhiensis (Subba Rao and Sharma) in relation to adult emergence. Journal of Applied Zoology Research, 9: 107-110.

Pandey, S. and Singh, R. 1998. Effect of temperature on the development and reproduction of a cereal aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebia minai Shuja-Uddin (Hymenoptera : Braconidae). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 16: 239-250.

Pandey, S. and Singh, R. 1999. Host-size induced variation in progeny sex ratio of an aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebia minai. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 99: 61-67.

Pandey, R.K., Singh, R. and Sinha, T.B. 1984. Bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora 18. Fecundity, oviposition period, duration of development, longevity and sex ratio of the parasitoid. Entomon, 9: 239-245.

Polgar, L. 1986. Effect of cold storage on the emergence, sex ratio and fecundity of Aphidius matricariae. In: Ecology of Aphidophaga, Hodek, I. (ed.), Prague Acad., pp. 255-260.

Rabasse, J.M. and Ibrahim, A.M.A. 1987. Conservation of Aphidius uzbekistanicus Luz.(Hym., Aphidiidae), parasite on Sitobion avenae F. (Horn., Aphididae). SROP/WPRS Bulletin XII, 54-56.

Ramaseshiah, G., Bhat, K.V. and Dharmadhikari, P.R. 1968. Influence of host aphid, host plant and temperature on the laboratory breeding of Lvsiohlebus testaceives. Indian Journal of Enromolgy, 30: 281-285.

Scopes, N.E.A., Biggerstaff, S.M. and Goodaal, D.E. 1973. Cool storage of some parasites used for pest control in glasshouses. Plant Pathology, 22: 189-193.

Sequeira, R. and Mackauer, M. 1994. Variation in selected life-history parameters of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi: influence of host developmental stage. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 71: 15-22.

Shukla, A.N. 1999. Thermal tolerance of the developing stages of an aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Aphidology, 13: 91-94.

Singh, R. 1994. Demography of the aphid parasitoid, Trioxys indicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on different host-patch sizes. In: Environment and Applied Biology, V. P. Agarwal, S. A. H. Abidi, R. K. Sharma and M. D. Zingde (eds.), Society of Biosciences, 25/4 Ram Bag Road, Muzaffarnagar, India, pp. 121-138.

Singh, R. 2000. Biological control of the aphids by utilising parasitoids. In: Biocontrol Potential and its Exploitation in Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 2, Upadhyay, R.K. (ed.), Kulwei Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA. in press

Singh, R. and Agarwala, B.K. 1992. Biology, ecology and control efficiency of the aphid parasitoid Trioxys indicus : A review and bibliography. Biological Agriculture ana Horticulture, 8: 271-298.

Singh, R. and Pandey, R.K. 1986. Bionomics oi Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. 21. Impact of host-age on the proportion of females in fi population. Journal of Applied Entomology, 101: 274-278.

Singh, R. and Pandey, S. 1997. Offspring sex ratio in aphidiinae (Hymenoptera : Braconidae), Review and Bibliography. Journal oj Aphidology, 11: 61-82.

Singh, R. and Rao, S.N. 1995. Biological control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) on cucurbits by Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). Biological Agriculture anc Horticulture, 12: 227-236.

Singh, R. and Sinha, T.B. 1980. Bionomics o1 Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphii craccivora Koch. 7. Sex ratio of the parasitoid in field population. Entomon, 5: 269-275.

Singh, R. and Sinha, T.B. 1982a. Bionomics ol Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus, an aphidiid oarasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. 10.

Superparasitism caused by confinement with the host. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 32: 227-231.

Singh, R. and Sinha, T.B. 1982b. Bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. 13. Host selection by the parasitoid. Journal of Applied Entomology, 93: 64-75.

Singh, R. and Srivastava, M. 1988. Effect of cold storage of mummies of Aphis craccivora Koch, subjected to different pre-storage temperature on percent emergence of Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma. Insect Science and its Application, 9: 655-657.

Singh, R. and Srivastava, M. 1994. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the offspring sex ratio of Lysiphlebus delhiensis (Subba Rao and Sharma), a parasitoid of Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). Journal of Aphidology, 8: 125-130.

Singh, R., Singh, A. and Pandey, S. 2000. Ability to switch over alternative host-complexes by an aphid parasitoid Binodoxys indicus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomologia Generalis, 25: 53-66.

Singh, R., Singh, K. and Prasad, M. 2000. Thermal influence on the development, reproduction and progeny sex ratio of Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press

Singh, R., Upadhyay, B.S. and Srivastava, P.N. 1996. Effect of temperature on the development and life-table of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on three food plants. Journal of Aphidology, 10: 19-30.

Singh, R., Upadhyay, A.K.. and Ahmad, M.E. 1997. Thermal influence on the life-table of Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an aphid parasitoid of Aphis gossypii Glover at variable host densities. Journal of Aphidology, 11: 205-212.

Singh, R., Upadhyay, B.S., Singh, D. and Chaudhary, H.S. 1999. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and their parasitoids in north-eastern Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Aphidology, 13: 49-62.

Sinha, T.B. and Singh, R. 1979. Studies on the bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae) : Effect of population densities on the sex ratio. Entomophaga, 24: 289-294.

Sinha, T.B. and Singh, R. 1980a. Studies on the bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera :

Aphididae), the area of discovery of the parasitoid. Journal of Applied Entomology, 89: 173-178.

Srivastava, M. and Singh, R. 1988a. Bionomics of Trioxys indicus, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora. 26. Impact of host extract on the ovipostion response of the parasitoid. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 5: 169-176.

Srivastava, M. and Singh, R. 1988b. Bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, an aphidiid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. 29. Impact of host extract on reproductive behaviour of the parasitoid at different host densities. Journal of Applied Entomology, 106: 408-412.

Srivastava, M. and Singh, R. 1994. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the offspring sex ratio of Lysiphlebus delhiensis (Subba Rao and Sharma) (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). Journal of Aphidology, 8: 125-130.

Stary, P. 1970a. Biology of Aphid Parasites (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae) with Respect to Integrated Control. The Hague, Dr. w. Junk, B. V.,pp. 643.

Stary, P. 1970b. Methods of mass rearing, collection and release of Aphidius smithi (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae) in Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemslovaca, 67: 339-346.

Tang, Y. Q. and Yokomi, R. K. 1995. Temperature-dependent development of three hymenopterous parasitoids of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) attacking citrus. Environmental Entomology, 24: 1736-1740.

Trimble, R. M., Blommers, L. H. M. and Helsen, H. H. M. 1990. Diapause termination and thermal requirements for postdiapause developments in Aphelinus mali at constant and fluctuating temperatures. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 56: 61-69.

Tripathi, R. N. and Singh, R. 1990: Fecundity, reproductive rate, longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase of an aphidiid parasitoid Lysiphlebia mirzai. Entomophaga, 35: 601 -610.

Tripathi, S.P. and Kumar, M. 1994. Effect of temperature on the length of developmental period and percent emergence of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera : Aphidiidae). Journal of Advanced Zoology, 15: 76-78.

Tripathi, S.P. and Tripathi, C.P. 1991. Temperature plays pivotal role in the survival of parasiotid Diaeretiella rapae (Mclntosh) bioagent of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Journal of Advanced Zoology, 12: 68-69.

Tyler, B.M.J. and Jones, P.A. 1974. Hibernation study with Lysiphlebus testaceipes, a parasite of the green bug. Environmental Entomology, 3: 412-414.

van Steenis, M.J. 1993. Intrinsic rate of increase of Aphidius colemani Vier. (Hym., Braconidae), a parasitoid of Aphis gossypii Glov. (Horn., Aphididae), at different temperatures. Journal of Applied Entomology, 116: 192-198.

van Steenis, M.J. 1994. Intrinsic rate of increase of Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of Aphis gossypii Glov. (Horn., Aphididae), at different temperatures. Journal of Applied Entomology, 118: 399-404.

Waage, J.K. 1986. Family planning in parasitoids: adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation. In: Insect Parasitoids, Waage, J.K. and

Greathead, D.J. (eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 63-95.

Waggoner, M., Bernal, J. and Gonzalez, D. 1997. Effect of short-term cold storage on mummy-stage survival in two parasites of the Russian wheat aphid. Southwestern Entomologist, 22: 73-77.

Whitaker-Deerberg, R. L., Michels, G. J., Wendel, L. E. and Farooqui, M. 1994. The effect of short-term cold storage on emergence of Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) mummies. Southwestern Entomologist, 19: 115-118.

Yu, D. S. 1992. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on diapause of two Aphelinus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing the Russian wheat aphid. Canadian Entomologists, 124: 853-860.
 

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 50(1) June 2021

 

Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to Scopus CiteScore 2020, MABJ ranks 165 out of 203 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.


Scopus Citescore