Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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26-1-08

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (1997) 26(1):45-53

BIODIVERSITY OF ARTHROPODS OF WET PADDY ECOSYSTEMS IN MALAYSIA

HASSAN, S.T.S. and RASHID, M.M.

Jabatan Biologi, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Fhis study compares richness, evenness and diversity indices between three wet paddy ecosystems, and between direct-seeded and transplanted plots. The total seasonal numbers of arthropods on 10, 000 plants and 10 sampling occasions were also estimated for six taxonomic groupings of pests, six of predators and two of parasitoids. Rarefraction curves were drawn to obtain the expected number of species as a function of total counts, at each ecosystem. The field at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) recorded the highest count, followed by Tanjung Karang (TK) and Bukit Cawi (BC). A similar trend is indicated by the richness indices of Margalef (Rl) and Menhinick (R2). Three indices of evenness, El, E2 and E3, reveal no significant differences between UPM, TK and BC. However using another two indices E4 and E5, TK and BC showed similarly high evenness, whereas UPM had a lower level of evenness. Simpson's index (1) and Hill's number N2 of diversity indicate no significant difference between the three sites. In contrast, Shannon's index (H') and Hill's number Nl reveal similar diversities of UPM and TK, but each one is different from that of BC, where the diversity index is the least. As confirmed by Nl and N2, BC recorded the least number of abundant taxonomic grouping. Numbers of arthropods were always significantly larger in the transplanted plot, when comparing direct-seeded and transplanted paddy at TK. The decimating effect of an insecticide Carbofuran® broadcasted at BC on various fauna, may have an influence in lowering abundance and biodiversity recorded there. In contrast, no pesticide was ever applied at UPM, where a higher diversity of plants, inclusive of many weeds, may explain the higher biodiversity of arthropods in the transplanted paddy. The actual total number of taxonomic groupings recorded were 28, 22 and 17 at UPM, TK and BC respectively, and this agrees well with the expected figures of 27, 23 and 17 from the rarefraction curves.


ABSTRAK

Kajian ini membandingkan indeks kekayaan, keserataan, dan kepelbagaian antara tiga ekosistem sawah padi, dan antara padi tabur-terus dan tanam-ubah. Jumlah semusim bilangan artropod pada 10, 000 pokok padi dan 10 kali pensampelan telah dianggar bagi enam kumpulan taksonomi perosak, enam predator dan dua parasitoid. Lengkung "rarefraction" telah dibentuk supaya dapat dianggari bilangan spesies terjangka sebagai fungsi jumlah bilangan yang dikira, pada setiap ekosistem. Sawah di Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) mencatatkan bilangan tertinggi, diikuti oleh Tanjung Karang (TK) dan Bukit Cawi (BC). Keputusan yang serupa telah diperolehi melalui indeks kekayaan Margalef (Rl) dan Menhinick (R2). Tiga indeks keserataan, El, E2 dan E3, menunjukkan tiada perbezaan bererti antara UPM, TK dan BC. Disebaliknya dengan menggunakan indeks keserataan E4 dan E5, TK dan BC didapati mempunyai keserataan yang sama tingginya, manakala UPM menunjukkan keserataan yang rendah. Indeks kepelbagaian Simpson (k) dan nombor Hill N2 menunjukkan tiada perbezaan antara ketiga-tiga sawah padi. Disebaliknya indeks Shannon (H') dan nombor Hill Nl menghasilkan kepelbagaian yang serupa bagi UPM dan TK, tetapi berbeza dari BC, di mana indeks kepelbagaian adalah terendah. Seperti yang telah didapati oleh Nl dan N2, BC mencatatkan bilangan terendah bagi kumpulan takson yang tinggi limpahannya. Jika dibandingkan sawah di TK yang ditanam secara tabur-terus dengan yang diubah, bilangan artropod sentiasa lebih tinggi dalam sawah yang ditanam ubah. Kesan pembunuhan insektisid 'Carbofuran' ke atas pelbagai fauna, mungkin telah mempengaruhi kerendahan kelimpahan dan biokepelbagaian di BC. Sebagai perbandingan racun perosak tidak langsung digunakan di UPM semasa kajian. Kepelbagaian tumbuh-tumbuhan yang tinggi, termasuk banyak jenis rumpai, dipercayai menyebabkan tinggi kepelbagaian artropod dalam sawah yang ditanam secara ubah. Jumlah sebenar bilangan kumpulan takson yang dicatat di UPM, TK dan BC adalah masing-masing 28, 22 and 17, dan ini hampir sama dengan jumlah terjangka daripada perkiraan melalui lengkung "rarefraction", iaitu 27, 23 and 17.

Key words: Arthropoda, biodiversity, diversity indices, paddy, rice.

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