Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size


E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (2008) 37(1): 57–62



1 National Prawn Fry Production and Research Centre (NAPFRE), Pulau Sayak, Kedah, Malaysia
2 Fisheries Research Institute (FRI), Batu Maung, 11960, Penang, Malaysia
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


A study was undertaken to determine the optimal Cytochalasin B (CB) concentration to induce triploidy in the tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei so that commercial production of triploids could be carried out. Three sets of triploid induction trials using the chemical, CB were carried out on strip-spawned eggs of the tropical oyster. The effect of four concentrations (0.25 ppm; 0.5 ppm; 0.75 ppm and 1.0 ppm) in inducing triploidy was evaluated. An untreated batch was kept as the control (0.0 ppm) for each trial. The short term survival rate of the oyster larvae up to 48 hrs was also studied. The one-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference at P < 0.05 in the triploidy levels for the various concentrations of CB used. Higher triploid yields of 51.3 ± 6.9% and 51.2 ± 6.7% were obtained for concentrations 0.75 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively which were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from each other. The short term survival rate of the larvae from different CB concentrations and the control had also indicated a significant difference at P < 0.05. The highest survival rate was recorded for the control at 0.0 ppm (51.7 ± 27.3%) while survival rates ranging from 7–20% for all other concentrations were not significantly different P > 0.05 from each other.


Kajian dijalankan untuk mengenalpasti kepekatan optimal Cytochalasin B (CB) yang diperlukan untuk mengaruhkan keadaan triploid pada tiram tropika, Crassostrea iredalei, untuk meghasilkan tiram triploid secara komersial. Tiga set percubaan aruhan triploid menggunakan CB dilakukan ke atas telur tiram yang dihasilkan dengan memicit keluar telurnya. Kesan ke atas empat kepekatan (0.25 ppm; 0.5 ppm; 0.75 ppm and 1.0 ppm) dinilai. Kelompok yang tidak dirawat (0ppm) dijadikan sebagai kawalan bagi setiap percubaan. Kadar kemandirian sehingga 48 jam setelah persenyawaan turut dikaji. Ujian ANOVA sehala menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan pada P<0.05 bagi paras triploid untuk semua kepekatan CB yang digunakan. Kajian telah menunjukkan kepekatan CB pada 0.75 ppm dan 1.0 ppm menghasilkan peratusan triploid yang tinggi, masing-masing 51.3 + 6.9% dan 51.2 + 6.7% dan didapati tiada perbezaan yang signifikan (P>0.05) antara kedua kepekatan tersebut. Kadar kemandirian jangka pendek bagi larva dari kepekatan CB yang berbeza dan kawalan juga menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan pada P<0.05. Kadar kemandirian yang paling tinggi direkodkan untuk kawalan pada 0.0 ppm (51.7 + 27.3%) sementara kepekatan yang lain menunjukkan prestasi antara 7-20% di mana tiada perbezaan signifikan antara satu sama lain.

Key words: tropical oyster embryos, Crassostrea iredalei, Cytochalasin-B, triploidy, survival rate


Allen Jr., S.K. & Bushek, D. 1992. Large-scale production of triploid oyster, Crassostrea virginica, using ‘stripped’ gametes. Aquaculture, 103: 241-251.

Allen Jr., S.K., Downing, S.L., Chaiton, J. & Beattie, J.H. 1986. Chemically and pressure- induced triploidy in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture, 57: 359-360.

Analytical Software. 2003. Statistix User’s Manual, Analytical Software. Statistix 8. Tallahassee, FL. 396 pp.

Anon, 2004. Triploid Oysters. Bishop Aquatic Technologies, INC., Triploid Oyster. http:// apr01.htm. Accessed on 25th August 2004.

Barber, B.J., Mann, R. & Allen Jr., S.K. 1992. Optimization of triploid induction for the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Aquaculture, 106: 21-26.

Beaumont, A.R. & Fairbrother, J.E. 1991. Ploidy manipulation in molluscan shellfish: a review. J. of Shellfish Res., 10: 1-8.

Chew, K.K. 1994. Tetraploid Pacific Oysters offer promise to future production of triploids. Aqua. Mag., 20: 69-74.

Gerard, A., Ledu, C., Phelipot, P. & Naciri-Graven, Y. 1999. The induction of M1 and MII triploids in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas with 6-DMAP or CB. Aquaculture, 174: 229- 242.

Guo, X., DeBrosse, G.A. & Allen Jr., S.K. 1996. All triploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) produced by mating tetraploids and diploids. Aquaculture, 142: 149–161.

Hand, R.E., Nell, J.A., Smith, I.R. & Maguire, G.B. 1998. Studies on Triploid Oysters in Australia. XI. Survival of diploid and triploid Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley)) through outbreaks of winter mortality caused by Mikrocytos roughleyi infestation. J. Shellfish Res., 17: 1129- 1135.

Jarayabhand, P., Jindalikit, J. & Menasveta, P. 1994. Chromosome manipulation in small oyster Sasscostrea cucullata by thermal shock. Thai J. of Aquatic Science, 1(1): 26-33.

Maguire, G.B., N.C. Gardner, N.C., Nell, J.A, Kent, G.N. & Kent, A.S. 1995. Studies on triploid oysters in Australia. 2. Growth, condition index gonad area, and glycogen content of triploid and diploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from oyster leases in Tasmania, Australia. Aquaculture, 137: 355-358.

Maldonado-Amparo, R., Ramirez, J.L., Avila, S. & Ibarra, A.M. 2004. Triploid lion-paw scallop (Nodipecten subnodosus Sowerby); growth, gametogenesis and gametic cell frequencies when grown at a high food availability site. Aquaculture, 235: 185-205.

Navanarasest, M., Menasveta, P., Jarayabhand, P. & Rungsupa, S. 1993. Induced settlement, metamorphosis, and triploidy in oyster. Proceedings the Third Technical Conference on Living Aquatic Resources. Chulalongkorn University Press, Bangkok. 277-291 pp.

Nell, J.A., Cox, E., Smith, I.R. & Maguire, G.B. 1995. Studies on triploid oysters in Australia. I. The farming potential of triploid Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley). Aquaculture, 137: 355-358.

Nell, J.A., Smith, I.R. & McPhee, C.C. 2000. The Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata breeding program: progress and goals. Aqua. Res., 31: 45-49.

Roongratri, N. & Youngvanichset, K. 1988. Triploid induction in the Mangrove oyster (Crassostrea lugubris) with cytochalasin B. Thai Fish. Gaz., 44(3): 223-227.

Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. 1989. Statistical Methods. 8th Iowa State U. Press, Ames. IA, US, 289-290 pp.

Yamamoto, S., Sugawara, Y., Nomura, T. & Oshino, A. 1988. Induced Triploidy in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and performance of triploid larvae. Tohoku J. Agri. Res., 39: 47-59.

Zourus, E. & Mallet, A.L. 1989. Genetic explanations of the growth/heterozygosity correlation in marine mollusc. In: Ryland, J. S. and Tyler, P. A. (Eds.), Reproduction, Genetics and Distributions of Marine Organisms. Fredensborg, Denmark, 317-323 pp.

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 50(1) June 2021


Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to Scopus CiteScore 2020, MABJ ranks 165 out of 203 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.

Scopus Citescore