Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2006) 35(2): 41–45


USUP, G.1*, CHEAH, M.Y.1, NG, B.K.1, LEAW, C.P.1 and AHMAD, A.2

1 Pusat Pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam 2 Pusat Pengajian Biosains dan Bioteknologi Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
* Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


This study was carried out to determine the toxin profile and toxin content of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. These are three of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates present in Malaysian waters. PSP toxins were analysed using an isocratic, post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The three species differed significantly in toxin profile. A. minutum contained only GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4. P. bahamense produced dcSTX, STX, NEO, GTX5 and GTX6. The most complex toxin profile was that of A. tamiyavanichii, comprising of STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, dcGTX3 and C2. The highest cell toxin content was found in P. bahamense at 128.7 fmole cell-1. Toxin content of A. tamiyavanichii and A. minutum were 54 fmole cell-1 and 40 fmole cell-1 respectively. However, when normalized to unit cell volume, toxin content was highest in A. minutum at 3.5 x 10-3 fmole ?m-3, followed by P. bahamense with 2.9 x 10-3 fmole ?m-3 and 2.2 x 10-3 fmole mm-3 for A. tamiyavanichii. Toxicity potential per cell was highest in P. bahamense at 59 fmole STXequiv. cell-1, followed by 42 fmole STXequiv. cell-1 for A. tamiyavanichii and 34 fmole STXequiv. cell-1 for A. minutum.


Kajian ini telah dijalankan untuk menentukan profil dan kandungan toksin dalam sel Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium tamiyavanichii dan Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Ini adalah tiga daripada spesies dinoflagelat marin penghasil toksin kerangan yang melumpuhkan (toksin PSP) yang terdapat di perairan Malaysia. Toksin PSP telah dianalisis menggunakan HPLC melalui kaedah isokratik, terbitan pasca turus dan pengesanan pendarfluor. Ketiga-tiga spesies mempunyai profil toksin yang berbeza. A. minutum hanya menghasilkan GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 dan GTX4. P. bahamense menghasilkan dcSTX, STX, NEO, GTX5 dan GTX6. A. tamiyavanichii mempunyai profil toksin yang paling kompleks yang terdiri daripada STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, dcGTX3 dan C2. Sel P. bahamense mengandungi paling banyak toksin dengan 128.7 fmol sel-1. Ini diikuti oleh A. tamiyavanichii dan A. minutum, masing-masing dengan 54 dan 40 fmol sel-1. Walau bagaimanapun apabila disetarakan dengan isipadu sel, kandungan toksin adalah tertinggi dalam A. minutum dengan 3.5 x 10-3 fmol ?m-3, diikuti oleh P. bahamense dengan 2.9 x 10-3 fmol ?m-3 dan 2.2 x 10-3 fmole ?m-3 untuk A. tamiyavanichii. Potensi ketoksikan adalah tertinggi untuk P. bahamense dengan 59 fmol STXequiv. sel-1, diikuti oleh A. tamiyavanichii dengan 42 fmol STXequiv. sel-1 dan 34 fmol STXequiv. sel-1 untuk A. minutum.

Key words: Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium tamiyavanichii, Pyrodinium bahamense, PSP toxin content, PSP toxin profile


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