Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

35-2-08

E-mail Print PDF
Malays. Appl. Biol. (2006) 35(2): 53–57

EFFECT OF DEFATTING AND OIL ADDITION ON THE GELATINIZATION PROPERTIES OF WHEAT, RICE AND SAGO FLOUR

SALMA, M.Y., *MASKAT, M.Y. and WAN AIDA, W.M.

Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Effect of defatting and addition of oil on the thermal properties of wheat, rice and sago flour were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). To determine the effect of defatting, batter solutions were prepared by mixing wheat, rice or sago flour with water at a ratio of 1:1.2 (flour:water) and were then freeze-dried for 15 hr. Defatting was done by Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent for 2 hr. For determining the effect of oil addition, batter solutions were prepared by mixing wheat, rice or sago flour with water at a ratio of 1:1.2 (flour:water). Five mg of frying oil was added to each batter solution which were then freeze-dried for 15 hr. Untreated and treated samples were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in the range of 25°C – 120°C at a scanning rate of 10°C/min. Parameters recorded were onset, peak and end temperatures along with enthalpy during gelatinization. In each of the wheat, rice and sago flour, it was shown that defatting and oil addition to the batter did not result in any major effects on the onset (To), peak (Tp) and end (Te) temperatures and also enthalpy of gelatinization (?H).


ABSTRAK

Kesan langkah nyahlemak dan penambahan minyak kepada cecair penyalut terhadap tepung gandum, beras dan sagu telah dikaji menggunakan Kalorimeter Pembias Kebedaan (DSC). Bagi penentuan kesan langkah nyahlemak, cecair penyalut telah disediakan dengan mencampurkan tepung gandum, beras atau sagu kepada air pada nisbah 1:1.2 (tepung:air) dan kemudian dikenakan pengeringan sejuk-beku selama 15 jam. Langkah nyahlemak dijalankan menggunakan pengekstrakan Soxhlet selama 2 jam dengan heksana sebagai pelarut. Bagi penentuan kesan penambahan minyak, cecair penyalut telah disediakan dengan mencampurkan tepung gandum, beras atau sagu kepada air pada nisbah 1:1.2 (tepung:air). Sebanyak 5 mg minyak masak ditambah ke dalam cecair penyalut tersebut dan dikenakan pengeringan sejuk-beku selama 15 jam. Sampel kawalan dan sampel yang dikenakan perlakuan dianalisis menggunakan Kalorimeter Pembias Kebedaan (DSC) dalam julat 25°C – 120°C pada kadar pemanasan 10°C/min. Parameter yang direkodkan adalah suhu awal, puncak dan akhir pengelatinan serta entalpi pengelatinan ternormal. Bagi setiap jenis tepung yang digunakan, langkah nyahlemak dan penambahan minyak kepada cecair penyalut tidak memberi kesan yang besar terhadap suhu awal (To), puncak (Tp), akhir (Te) dan entalpi pengelatinan (?H).

Key words: defatting, gelatinization

REFERRENCES

A.O.A.C. 1990. Official Method of analysis. 15th edition. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA.

Aguilera, J.M., Cadoche, L., Lopez, C. & Gutierrez, G. 2001. Microstructural changes of potato cells and starch granules heated in oil. Food Research International. 34: 939-947.

Biliaderis, C.G. & Tonogai, J.R. 1991. Influence of lipids on the thermal & mechanical properties of concentrated starch gels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39: 833-40.

Bizot, H., Le Bail, P., Leroux, B., Davy, J., Roger, P. & Bule ?on, A. 1997. Calorimetric evaluation of the glass transition in hydrated, linear and branched polyanhydroglucose compounds. Carbohydrate Polymers. 32: 33– 50.

Donovan, J.W., Lorenz, K. & Kulp, K. 1983. Differential scanning calorimetry of heat- moisture treated wheat and potato starches. Cereal Chemistry. 60(5): 381–387.

Ghiasi, K., Hoseney, C. & Varriano-Marston, E. 1982. Gelatinization of wheat starch. III. Comparison by differential scanning calorimetry and light microscopy. Cereal Chemistry. 59(4): 258–262.

Hoover, R. & Vasanthan, T. 1994. Effect of heat- moisture treatment on the structure and physicochemical properties of cereal, legume and tuber starches. Carbohydrates Research. 252: 33-53.

Liu, Q., Charlet, G., Yelle, S. & Arul, J. 2002. Phase transition in potato starch-water system 1. Starch gelatinization at high moisture level. Food Research International 35: 397-407.

Lorenz, K. 1983. Physicochemical properties of defatted heat-moisture treated starches. Starch. 35: 123-9.

Mahsa, M., Arthur, J.R., Martin, C., Sandra, E.H. & Stephen, E.H. 2003. Partial fractionation of wheat starch amylase and amylopectin using zonal ultracenrifugation. Carbohydrate Polymers 52: 269-274.

Rolee, A. & LeMestre, M. 1999. Effect of moisture content on thermomechanical behavior of concentrated wheat starch-water prep-arations. Cereal Chemistry. 76(3): 452– 458.

SAS. 1998. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. SAS Software Release 6.12 TS020 Lousiana State University.

Sakonidou, E.P., Karapantsios, T.D. & Raphaelides, S.N. 2003. Mass transfer limitations during starch gelatinization. Carbohydrate Polymers. 1-9.

Takashi, S. & Seib, P.A. 1988. Paste and gel properties of prime corn and wheat starches with and without native lipids. Cereal Chemistry 65: 474-83.

Vasanthan, T. & Hoover, R. 1992. Effect of defatting on starch structure and physico- chemical properties. Food Chemistry 45: 337- 347.

Warne, S.S.J. 1992. Introduction in Thermal Analysis. Thermal Analysis Technique and Applications. 1-30. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.

Whistler, R.L. & BeMiller, J.N. 1997. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul: Eagan Press, pp. 117–151.

Yu, L. & Christie, G. 2001. Measurement of starch thermal transitions using differential scanning calorimetry. Carbohydrate Polymers 46.

Zanoni, B., Schiraldi, A. & Simonetta, R. 1995. A naïve model of starch gelatinization kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering 24: 25- 33.
 

Latest MABJ Issue

Vol 50(1) June 2021

 

Table of content

Latest news!

Malaysian Applied Biology is listed in the databases and indexed in Web of Science Master Journal List, Elsevier, Mycite, Biosis, Zoological Records, UDLedge Life Science Index, CNKI, J-Gate and CABI.

Malaysian Applied Biology is indexed in Scopus since issue 41(1) 2012.

According to Scopus CiteScore 2020, MABJ ranks 165 out of 203 Malaysian journals in terms of yearly impact factor.


Scopus Citescore