Malays. Appl. Biol. (2007) 36(1): 31–40



School of Environmental & Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi
*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Garcinia is known for their edible fruit and a number of species from the wild have been selected and cultivated not just for their fruits but also for other uses such as vegetables and traditional medicine. Phylogenetic relationships of five locally cultivated and 12 wild species of Garcinia were determined using the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). Sequence analysis generated by both Parsimony and Bayesian inference resulted in almost identical tree topology containing five main monophyletic clades. The monophyly of these clades are congruent with previous taxonomic classification although a few clades require more representative samples to give clearer picture. Garcinia cowa (kandis) and G. atroviridis (asam gelugor) clustered within sect. Brindonia, G. hombroniana (beruas) and G. mangostana (mangosteen) fall within clade of sect. Garcinia and G. prainiana (kecupu) exhibit as basal clade of sect. Xanthochymus.


Garcinia telah dikenali kerana buahnya yang boleh dimakan dan terdapat beberapa spesies liar yang telah dipilih dan dijadikan tanaman bukan sahaja kerana buahnya bahkan juga kerana kegunaannya sebagai sayuran dan ubatan tradisi. Pertalian filogenetik sebanyak lima spesies yang ditanam dan 12 spesies liar telah ditentukan dengan menggunakan jujukan kawasan yang ditrankripsi dalaman (ITS). Analisis jujukan yang dijana daripada kaedah Parsimoni dan inferens Bayes menghasilkan pohon filogeni yang agak serupa topologinya dengan lima klad utama. Monofili klad ini adalah sejajar dengan pengelasan taksonomi yang telah dilakukan walaupun terdapat sebilangan kecil klad yang memerlukan lebih banyak wakil spesies bagi memperjelaskan keadaan. G. cowa (kandis) dan G. atroviridis (asam gelugor) terkumpul di dalam seksyen Brindonia, G. hombroniana (beruas) dan G. mangostana (manggis) tergolong dalam klad seksyen Garcinia dan G. prainiana (kecupu) menunjukkan sebagai klad dasar iaitu di dalam seksyen Xanthochymus.

Key words: Phylogenetic relationships, Garcinia species, ITS


Altschul, S.F., Thomas, L.M., Alejandro, A.S., Jinghui, Z., Zheng, Z., Webb, M. and David, J.L. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PST-BLAST: A new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleics Acid Research 25: 3389- 3402.

Burkill, I.H. 1935. A Dictionary of the Economic Product of the Malay Peninsula 1. Reprint Edition (1966). Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-Operatives.

Baldwin, B.G. 1992. Phylogenetic utility of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA in plants: an example from Compositae. Molecular Phylogenetic & Evolution 1(1): 3-16.

Baldwin, B.G., Sanderson, M.J., Porter, J.M., Wojceichowski, M.F., Campbell, C.S. and Donoghue, M.J. 1995. The ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA: A valuable source of evidence on angiosperm phylogeny. Annals Missouri Botanical Garden 82: 247-277.

Corner, E.J.H. 1940. Wayside Trees of Malaya 1, 3rd Edition (1988). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Nature Society.

Crespo, M.B, Lledo, M.D., Fay, M.F. and Chase, M.W. 2000. Subtribe Vellinae (Brassiceae, Brassicaceae): a combined analysis of ITS nrDNA sequences and morphological data. Annals of Botany 86: 53-62.

Doyle, J.J. and Doyle, J.L. 1990. Isolation of plants DNA from fresh tissues. Focus 12: 13- 15.

Falsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limit on phylogenies; an approach using bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783-791.

Fitch, W.M. 1970. Towards defining the course of evolution: minimum of change for specific tree topology. Systematic Zoology 20: 406-416.

Gustafsson, M.H.G., V. Bittrich & P.F. Stevens. 2002. Phylogeny of Clusiaceae based on rbcL sequences. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163(3): 1045-1054.

Hooker, J.D. 1875. Garcinia. In: J.D. Hooker (ed.), Flora of British India 1: 259. L. Reeve & Co., London.

Jones, S.W. 1980. Morphology and Major Taxonomy of Garcinia (Guttiferae). Unpublished Ph D. thesis University of Leicester UK.

Kamiya, K., Harada, K., Ogino, K., Kajita, T., Yamazaki, T., Lee, H.S. and Ashton, P.S. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of Dipterocarp species using nucleotide of two non-coding regions in chloroplast DNA. Tropics, 7(3/4): 195-207.

King, G. 1890. Materials for a flora of the Malayan Peninsula. J. As. Soc. Beng. 59: 156.

Kollipara, K.P., Singh, R.J. and Hymowitz, T. 1997. Phylogenetic and genomic relationship in the genus Glycine Willd. based on sequences of ITS region of nuclear rDNA. Genome 40: 57-68.

Liston, A., Robinson, W.A., Pinero, D., and Alvarez-Buyyla, E.R. 1999. Phylogenetics of Pinus (Pinaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transribed spacer region sequences. Molecular Phylogenetic Evolution 11(1): 95-109.

Nabandith, V., M. Suzui, T. Morioka, T. Kaneshiro, T. Kinjo, K. Matsumoto, Y. Akao, M. Iinuma & N. Yoshimi. 2004. Inhibitory effects of crude alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, on two different categories of colon preneoplastic lesions induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 5(4): 433-438.

Richards, A.J. 1990. Studies in Garcinia dioecious tropical forest trees: The origin of the mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. Botanical Journal of Linnaean Society 103(4): 301-308.

Ridley, H.N. 1922. Flora of Malay Peninsula 1. London, Lovell Reeve.

Rismita, Sari. 2000. Review of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) Based on Molecular Systematics. A Phylogenetic study of molecular data of Garcinia spp. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Tropical Plant Science, School of Tropical Biology., James Cook University.

Ronquist, F. & J.P. Huelsenbeck, 2003. MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572-1574.

Rukachaisirikul, V., P. Pailee, A. Hiranrat, P. Tuchinda, C. Yoosook, J. Kasisit, W.C. Taylor & V. Reutrakul. 2003. Anti-HIV-1 protostane triterpenes and digeranylbenzo- phenone from trunk, bark and stems of Garcinia speciosa. Planta Medica 69(12): 1141- 1146.

Schulthies, L.M. and Baldwin, B.G. 1999. Molecular phylogenetic of Fouquiriaceae: evidence from nuclear rDNA ITS studies. American Journal of Botany 86(4): 578-589.

Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 6. http:// www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. May 2006.

Swofford, D.L. 1999. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony Ver. 4.0. Sineur, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. and Higgins, D.G. 1997. The CLUSTAL X Windows, flexible strategies for multiple sequencing alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleics Acid Research 25(4): 4876-4882.

Vesque, J. 1893. Guttiferae. In: A. deCandolle and C. deCandolle (eds.), Monographiae Phanero- gamarum Prodromi Nunc Continuato, Nunc Revisio vol. VIII. Sumptibus G. Masson, Paris.

Wallich, N. 1832. Plantae Asiatica Rariores. Vol. 3.Richard Taylor for Treuttel & Würtz, Treuttel jun. & Richter, London, Paris & Strassburg.

White, T.J, Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. In Innis M, Gelfland D, Snisky J, White T. (eds.), PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Amplification. Academic Press, San Diego.

Whitmore, T.C. 1973. Guttiferae. In T.C. Whitmore (ed.) Tree Flora of Malaya 2: 162- 236. Kuala Lumpur, Longman Malaysia.

Yapwattanaphun, C., S. Subhadrabandhu, C. Honsho & K. Yonemori. 2004. Phylogenetic Relationship of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and several wild relatives (Garcinia spp.) revealed by ITS sequence data. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 129(3): 368-373.